Data Description

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Citation:
Thomsen, Jörn; Gutowska, Magdalena A; Saphörster, J; Heinemann, Agnes; Trübenbach, Katja; Fietzke, Jan; Hiebenthal, Claas; Eisenhauer, Anton; Körtzinger, Arne; Wahl, Martin; Melzner, Frank; Thomsen, Elsebeth (2010): Seawater carbonate chemistry and Mytilus edulis biological processes during experiments, 2010. doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.763336,
Supplement to: Thomsen, Jörn; Gutowska, Magdalena A; Saphörster, J; Heinemann, Agnes; Trübenbach, Katja; Fietzke, Jan; Hiebenthal, Claas; Eisenhauer, Anton; Körtzinger, Arne; Wahl, Martin; Melzner, Frank (2010): Calcifying invertebrates succeed in a naturally CO2-rich coastal habitat but are threatened by high levels of future acidification. Biogeosciences, 7(11), 3879-3891, doi:10.5194/bg-7-3879-2010
Abstract:
CO2 emissions are leading to an acidification of the oceans. Predicting marine community vulnerability towards acidification is difficult, as adaptation processes cannot be accounted for in most experimental studies. Naturally CO2 enriched sites thus can serve as valuable proxies for future changes in community structure. Here we describe a natural analogue site in the Western Baltic Sea. Seawater pCO2 in Kiel Fjord is elevated for large parts of the year due to upwelling of CO2 rich waters. Peak pCO2 values of >230 Pa (>2300 µatm) and pHNBS values of <7.5 are encountered during summer and autumn, average pCO2 values are ~70 Pa (~700 µatm). In contrast to previously described naturally CO2 enriched sites that have suggested a progressive displacement of calcifying auto- and heterotrophic species, the macrobenthic community in Kiel Fjord is dominated by calcifying invertebrates. We show that blue mussels from Kiel Fjord can maintain control rates of somatic and shell growth at a pCO2 of 142 Pa (1400 µatm, pHNBS = 7.7). Juvenile mussel recruitment peaks during the summer months, when high water pCO2 values of ~100 Pa (~1000 µatm) prevail. Our findings indicate that calcifying keystone species may be able to cope with surface ocean pHNBS values projected for the end of this century when food supply is sufficient. However, owing to non-linear synergistic effects of future acidification and upwelling of corrosive water, peak seawater pCO2 in Kiel Fjord and many other productive estuarine habitats could increase to values >400 Pa (>4000 µatm). These changes will most likely affect calcification and recruitment, and increase external shell dissolution.
Project(s):
Comment:
In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Lavigne and Gattuso, 2011) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI).
Parameter(s):
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1Identification *IDThomsen, Jörn *
2Experimental treatment *Exp trtmThomsen, Jörn *
3Salinity *SalThomsen, Jörn *
4Temperature, water *Temp°CThomsen, Jörn *
5pH *pHThomsen, Jörn *WTW 340i pH-analyzer and WTW SenTix 81-electrode *NBS scale
6pH, standard deviation *pH std dev±Thomsen, Jörn *
7Alkalinity, total *ATµmol/kgThomsen, Jörn *Titration, VINDTA system *
8Alkalinity, total, standard deviation *AT std dev±Thomsen, Jörn *
9Carbon, inorganic, dissolved *DICµmol/kgThomsen, Jörn *SOMMA autoanalyzer *
10Carbon, inorganic, dissolved, standard deviation *DIC std dev±Thomsen, Jörn *
11Carbon dioxide, partial pressure *pCO2PaThomsen, Jörn *Calculated using CO2SYS *
12Carbon dioxide, partial pressure, standard deviation *pCO2 std dev±Thomsen, Jörn *
13Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air) *pCO2water_SST_wetµatmThomsen, Jörn *Calculated using CO2SYS *
14Carbon dioxide, partial pressure, standard deviation *pCO2 std dev±Thomsen, Jörn *
15Calcite saturation state *Omega CalThomsen, Jörn *Calculated using CO2SYS *
16Calcite saturation state, standard deviation *Omega Cal std dev±Thomsen, Jörn *
17Aragonite saturation state *Omega ArgThomsen, Jörn *Calculated using CO2SYS *
18Aragonite saturation state, standard deviation *Omega Arg std dev±Thomsen, Jörn *
19Identification *IDThomsen, Jörn *
20Mytilus edulis, weight, shell *M. edulis W shellmgThomsen, Jörn *
21Mytilus edulis, length shell *M. edulis L shellmmThomsen, Jörn *
22Mytilus edulis, weight, dry *M. edulis DWmgThomsen, Jörn *
23Mytilus edulis, length shell *M. edulis L shellmmThomsen, Jörn *Scanning electron microscope (SEM) *Initial
24Mytilus edulis, length shell *M. edulis L shellmmThomsen, Jörn *Scanning electron microscope (SEM) *Final
25Mytilus edulis, length shell *M. edulis L shellmmThomsen, Jörn *Scanning electron microscope (SEM) *95% shell length calcite thickness
26Mytilus edulis, length shell *M. edulis L shellmmThomsen, Jörn *Scanning electron microscope (SEM) *75% shell length calcite thickness
27Mytilus edulis, length shell *M. edulis L shellmmThomsen, Jörn *Scanning electron microscope (SEM) *75% shell length aragonite thickness
28Replicates *Repl#Thomsen, Jörn *75% shell length aragonite layers
29Mytilus edulis, length shell *M. edulis L shellmmThomsen, Jörn *Scanning electron microscope (SEM) *75% shell length aragonite layer thickness
30Mytilus edulis, area, dissolved *M. edulis area dissmm2Thomsen, Jörn *
31Mytilus edulis, dissolution severity *M. edulis, diss severityThomsen, Jörn *
32Mytilus edulis, haemolymph, pH *M. edulis pH (ha)Thomsen, Jörn *WTW 340i pH-analyzer and WTW SenTix 81-electrode *
33Mytilus edulis, haemolymph, total dissolved inorganic carbon *M. edulis DIC (ha)mmol/lThomsen, Jörn *Automated CO2 analyzer (CIBA-Corning 965, UK) *
34Mytilus edulis, haemolymph, apparent dissociation constant of carbon acid *M. edulis pK (ha)Thomsen, Jörn *
35Mytilus edulis, haemolymph, partial pressure of carbon dioxide *M. edulis pCO2 (ha)PaThomsen, Jörn *
36Mytilus edulis, haemolymph, partial pressure of carbon dioxide *M. edulis pCO2 (ha)µatmThomsen, Jörn *
37Mytilus edulis, haemolymph, bicarbonate ion *M. edulis [HCO3]- (ha)mmol/lThomsen, Jörn *
38Mytilus edulis, haemolymph, carbonate ion *M. edulis [CO3]2- (ha)µmol/lThomsen, Jörn *
39Mytilus edulis, haemolymph, sodium ion *M. edulis Na+ (ha)%Thomsen, Jörn *of seawater
40Mytilus edulis, haemolymph, potassium ion *M. edulis K+ (ha)%Thomsen, Jörn *of seawater
41Mytilus edulis, haemolymph, magnesium ion *M. edulis Mg2+ (ha)%Thomsen, Jörn *of seawater
42Mytilus edulis, haemolymph, calcium ion *M. edulis Ca2+ (ha)%Thomsen, Jörn *of seawater
43Mytilus edulis, extrapallial fluid pH *M. edulis pH (EPF)Thomsen, Jörn *WTW 340i pH-analyzer and WTW SenTix 81-electrode *
44Mytilus edulis, extrapallial fluid total carbon *M. edulis DIC (EPF)mmol/lThomsen, Jörn *Automated CO2 analyzer (CIBA-Corning 965, UK) *
45Mytilus edulis, extrapallial fluid pK *M. edulis pK (EPF)Thomsen, Jörn *
46Mytilus edulis, extrapallial fluid partial pressure of carbon dioxide *M. edulis pCO2 (EPF)PaThomsen, Jörn *
47Mytilus edulis, extrapallial fluid partial pressure of carbon dioxide *M. edulis pCO2 (EPF)µatmThomsen, Jörn *
48Mytilus edulis, extrapallial fluid bicarbonate *M. edulis HCO3 (EPF)mmol/lThomsen, Jörn *
49Mytilus edulis, extrapallial fluid carbonate ion *M. edulis CO3 (EPF)µmol/lThomsen, Jörn *
50Carbonate system computation flag *CSC flagNisumaa, Anne-Marin *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
51pH *pHNisumaa, Anne-Marin *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *Total scale
52Carbon dioxide *CO2µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-Marin *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
53Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air) *pCO2water_SST_wetµatmNisumaa, Anne-Marin *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
54Fugacity of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air) *fCO2water_SST_wetµatmNisumaa, Anne-Marin *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
55Bicarbonate ion *[HCO3]-µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-Marin *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
56Carbonate ion *[CO3]2-µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-Marin *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
57Aragonite saturation state *Omega ArgNisumaa, Anne-Marin *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
58Calcite saturation state *Omega CalNisumaa, Anne-Marin *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
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