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Melzner, Frank; Stange, Paul; Trübenbach, Katja; Thomsen, Jörn; Casties, Isabel; Panknin, Ulrike; Gorb, Stanislav N; Gutowska, Magdalena A (2011): Seawater carbonate chemistry and biological processes of Mytilus edulis during experiments, 2011. doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.770479,
Supplement to: Melzner, F et al. (2011): Food supply and seawater pCO2 impact calcification and internal shell dissolution in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. PLoS ONE, 6(9), e24223, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024223

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Abstract:
Progressive ocean acidification due to anthropogenic CO2 emissions will alter marine ecosytem processes. Calcifying organisms might be particularly vulnerable to these alterations in the speciation of the marine carbonate system. While previous research efforts have mainly focused on external dissolution of shells in seawater under saturated with respect to calcium carbonate, the internal shell interface might be more vulnerable to acidification. In the case of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, high body fluid pCO2 causes low pH and low carbonate concentrations in the extrapallial fluid, which is in direct contact with the inner shell surface. In order to test whether elevated seawater pCO2 impacts calcification and inner shell surface integrity we exposed Baltic M. edulis to four different seawater pCO2 (39, 142, 240, 405 Pa) and two food algae (310-350 cells mL-1 vs. 1600-2000 cells mL-1) concentrations for a period of seven weeks during winter (5°C). We found that low food algae concentrations and high pCO2 values each significantly decreased shell length growth. Internal shell surface corrosion of nacreous ( = aragonite) layers was documented via stereomicroscopy and SEM at the two highest pCO2 treatments in the high food group, while it was found in all treatments in the low food group. Both factors, food and pCO2, significantly influenced the magnitude of inner shell surface dissolution. Our findings illustrate for the first time that integrity of inner shell surfaces is tightly coupled to the animals' energy budget under conditions of CO2 stress. It is likely that under food limited conditions, energy is allocated to more vital processes (e.g. somatic mass maintenance) instead of shell conservation. It is evident from our results that mussels exert significant biological control over the structural integrity of their inner shell surfaces.
Comment:
In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Lavigne and Gattuso, 2011) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI).
Parameter(s):
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1Experimental treatmentExp trtmMelzner, FrankFood concentration
2Experimental treatmentExp trtmMelzner, FrankpCO2 concentration
3Cell densityCells#/mlMelzner, FrankHeader
4Cell density, standard deviationCells std dev±Melzner, FrankHeader
5Cell densityCells#/mlMelzner, FrankAquaria
6Cell density, standard deviationCells std dev±Melzner, FrankAquaria
7pHpHMelzner, FrankWTW 340i pH-analyzer and WTW SenTix 81-electrodeNBS scale; incubation daily mean
8pH, standard deviationpH std dev±Melzner, Frank
9Temperature, waterTemp°CMelzner, Frank
10Temperature, standard deviationT std dev±Melzner, Frank
11SalinitySalMelzner, Frank
12Salinity, standard deviationSal std dev±Melzner, Frank
13Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICµmol/kgMelzner, FrankAIRICA analyzer (Miranda)
14Carbon, inorganic, dissolved, standard deviationDIC std dev±Melzner, Frank
15pHpHMelzner, FrankWTW 340i pH-analyzer and WTW SenTix 81-electrodeNBS scale; mean of experimental tanks
16pH, standard deviationpH std dev±Melzner, Frank
17Alkalinity, totalATµmol/kgMelzner, FrankCalculated using CO2SYS
18Alkalinity, total, standard deviationAT std dev±Melzner, Frank
19Carbon dioxide, partial pressurepCO2PaMelzner, FrankCalculated using CO2SYS
20Carbon dioxide, partial pressure, standard deviationpCO2 std dev±Melzner, Frank
21Calcite saturation stateOmega CalMelzner, FrankCalculated using CO2SYS
22Calcite saturation state, standard deviationOmega Cal std dev±Melzner, Frank
23Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgMelzner, FrankCalculated using CO2SYS
24Aragonite saturation state, standard deviationOmega Arg std dev±Melzner, Frank
25Mytilus edulis, length shellM. edulis L shellmmMelzner, FrankMeasuredInitial
26Mytilus edulis, shell length, standard deviationM. edulis shell l std dev±Melzner, Frank
27Mytilus edulis, length shellM. edulis L shellmmMelzner, FrankMeasuredFinal
28Mytilus edulis, shell length, standard deviationM. edulis shell l std dev±Melzner, Frank
29Mytilus edulis, shell mass growthM. edulis WµmgMelzner, FrankPrecision scale (Sartorius TE64, Sartorius AG, Germany)
30Mytilus edulis, shell mass growth, standard deviationM. edulis Wµ std dev±Melzner, Frank
31Mytilus edulis, somatic mass growthM. edulis sWµmgMelzner, FrankCalculated, see reference(s)
32Mytilus edulis, somatic mass growth, standard deviationM. edulis sWµ std dev±Melzner, Frank
33Mytilus edulis, dissolution, nacreM. edulis diss nacre%Melzner, FrankCalculated, see reference(s)
34Mytilus edulis, dissolution, nacre, standard deviationM. edulis diss nacre std dev±Melzner, Frank
35Alkalinity, totalATµmol/kgMelzner, FrankCalculated using CO2SYS
36Carbonate system computation flagCSC flagNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
37pHpHNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)Total scale
38Carbon dioxideCO2µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
39Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
40Fugacity of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)fCO2water_SST_wetµatmNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
41Bicarbonate ion[HCO3]-µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
42Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
43Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
44Calcite saturation stateOmega CalNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
Size:
340 data points

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