Data Description

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Citation:
Melzner, F et al. (2011): Seawater carbonate chemistry and biological processes of Mytilus edulis during experiments, 2011. doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.770479,
Supplement to: Melzner, Frank; Stange, Paul; Trübenbach, Katja; Thomsen, Jörn; Casties, Isabel; Panknin, Ulrike; Gorb, Stanislav N; Gutowska, Magdalena A (2011): Food supply and seawater pCO2 impact calcification and internal shell dissolution in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. PLoS ONE, 6(9), e24223, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024223
Abstract:
Progressive ocean acidification due to anthropogenic CO2 emissions will alter marine ecosytem processes. Calcifying organisms might be particularly vulnerable to these alterations in the speciation of the marine carbonate system. While previous research efforts have mainly focused on external dissolution of shells in seawater under saturated with respect to calcium carbonate, the internal shell interface might be more vulnerable to acidification. In the case of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, high body fluid pCO2 causes low pH and low carbonate concentrations in the extrapallial fluid, which is in direct contact with the inner shell surface. In order to test whether elevated seawater pCO2 impacts calcification and inner shell surface integrity we exposed Baltic M. edulis to four different seawater pCO2 (39, 142, 240, 405 Pa) and two food algae (310-350 cells mL-1 vs. 1600-2000 cells mL-1) concentrations for a period of seven weeks during winter (5°C). We found that low food algae concentrations and high pCO2 values each significantly decreased shell length growth. Internal shell surface corrosion of nacreous ( = aragonite) layers was documented via stereomicroscopy and SEM at the two highest pCO2 treatments in the high food group, while it was found in all treatments in the low food group. Both factors, food and pCO2, significantly influenced the magnitude of inner shell surface dissolution. Our findings illustrate for the first time that integrity of inner shell surfaces is tightly coupled to the animals' energy budget under conditions of CO2 stress. It is likely that under food limited conditions, energy is allocated to more vital processes (e.g. somatic mass maintenance) instead of shell conservation. It is evident from our results that mussels exert significant biological control over the structural integrity of their inner shell surfaces.
Project(s):
Comment:
In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Lavigne and Gattuso, 2011) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI).
Parameter(s):
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1Experimental treatment *Exp trtmMelzner, Frank *Food concentration
2Experimental treatment *Exp trtmMelzner, Frank *pCO2 concentration
3Cell density *Cells#/mlMelzner, Frank *Header
4Cell density, standard deviation *Cells std dev±Melzner, Frank *Header
5Cell density *Cells#/mlMelzner, Frank *Aquaria
6Cell density, standard deviation *Cells std dev±Melzner, Frank *Aquaria
7pH *pHMelzner, Frank *WTW 340i pH-analyzer and WTW SenTix 81-electrode *NBS scale; incubation daily mean
8pH, standard deviation *pH std dev±Melzner, Frank *
9Temperature, water *Temp°CMelzner, Frank *
10Temperature, standard deviation *T std dev±Melzner, Frank *
11Salinity *SalMelzner, Frank *
12Salinity, standard deviation *Sal std dev±Melzner, Frank *
13Carbon, inorganic, dissolved *DICµmol/kgMelzner, Frank *AIRICA analyzer (Miranda) *
14Carbon, inorganic, dissolved, standard deviation *DIC std dev±Melzner, Frank *
15pH *pHMelzner, Frank *WTW 340i pH-analyzer and WTW SenTix 81-electrode *NBS scale; mean of experimental tanks
16pH, standard deviation *pH std dev±Melzner, Frank *
17Alkalinity, total *ATµmol/kgMelzner, Frank *Calculated using CO2SYS *
18Alkalinity, total, standard deviation *AT std dev±Melzner, Frank *
19Carbon dioxide, partial pressure *pCO2PaMelzner, Frank *Calculated using CO2SYS *
20Carbon dioxide, partial pressure, standard deviation *pCO2 std dev±Melzner, Frank *
21Calcite saturation state *Omega CalMelzner, Frank *Calculated using CO2SYS *
22Calcite saturation state, standard deviation *Omega Cal std dev±Melzner, Frank *
23Aragonite saturation state *Omega ArgMelzner, Frank *Calculated using CO2SYS *
24Aragonite saturation state, standard deviation *Omega Arg std dev±Melzner, Frank *
25Mytilus edulis, length shell *M. edulis L shellmmMelzner, Frank *Measured *Initial
26Mytilus edulis, shell length, standard deviation *M. edulis shell l std dev±Melzner, Frank *
27Mytilus edulis, length shell *M. edulis L shellmmMelzner, Frank *Measured *Final
28Mytilus edulis, shell length, standard deviation *M. edulis shell l std dev±Melzner, Frank *
29Mytilus edulis, shell mass growth *M. edulis WµmgMelzner, Frank *Precision scale (Sartorius TE64, Sartorius AG, Germany) *
30Mytilus edulis, shell mass growth, standard deviation *M. edulis Wµ std dev±Melzner, Frank *
31Mytilus edulis, somatic mass growth *M. edulis sWµmgMelzner, Frank *Calculated, see reference(s) *
32Mytilus edulis, somatic mass growth, standard deviation *M. edulis sWµ std dev±Melzner, Frank *
33Mytilus edulis, dissolution, nacre *M. edulis diss nacre%Melzner, Frank *Calculated, see reference(s) *
34Mytilus edulis, dissolution, nacre, standard deviation *M. edulis diss nacre std dev±Melzner, Frank *
35Alkalinity, total *ATµmol/kgMelzner, Frank *Calculated using CO2SYS *
36Carbonate system computation flag *CSC flagNisumaa, Anne-Marin *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
37pH *pHNisumaa, Anne-Marin *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *Total scale
38Carbon dioxide *CO2µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-Marin *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
39Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air) *pCO2water_SST_wetµatmNisumaa, Anne-Marin *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
40Fugacity of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air) *fCO2water_SST_wetµatmNisumaa, Anne-Marin *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
41Bicarbonate ion *[HCO3]-µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-Marin *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
42Carbonate ion *[CO3]2-µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-Marin *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
43Aragonite saturation state *Omega ArgNisumaa, Anne-Marin *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
44Calcite saturation state *Omega CalNisumaa, Anne-Marin *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
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