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Kreiss, Cornelia M; Michael, Katharina; Bock, Christian; Lucassen, Magnus; Pörtner, Hans-Otto (2015): Impact of long-term moderate hypercapnia and elevated temperature on the energy budget of isolated gills and branchial in vivo and in vitro enzyme capacities of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.848599,
Supplement to: Kreiss, CM et al. (2015): Impact of long-term moderate hypercapnia and elevated temperature on the energy budget of isolated gills of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 182, 102-112, doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2014.12.019

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Abstract:
Effects of severe hypercapnia have been extensively studied in marine fishes, while knowledge on the impacts of moderately elevated CO2 levels and their combination with warming is scarce. Here we investigate ion regulation mechanisms and energy budget in gills from Atlantic cod acclimated long-term to elevated PCO2 levels (2500 µatm) and temperature (18 °C). Isolated perfused gill preparations established to determine gill thermal plasticity during acute exposures (10-22 °C) and in vivo costs of Na+/K+-ATPase activity, protein and RNA synthesis. Maximum enzyme capacities of F1Fo-ATPase, H+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase were measured in vitro in crude gill homogenates. After whole animal acclimation to elevated PCO2 and/or warming, branchial oxygen consumption responded more strongly to acute temperature change. The fractions of gill respiration allocated to protein and RNA synthesis remained unchanged. In gills of fish CO2-exposed at both temperatures, energy turnover associated with Na+/K+-ATPase activity was reduced by 30% below rates of control fish. This contrasted in vitro capacities of Na+/K+-ATPase, which remained unchanged under elevated CO2 at 10 °C, and earlier studies which had found a strong upregulation under severe hypercapnia. F1Fo-ATPase capacities increased in hypercapnic gills at both temperatures, whereas Na+/K+ATPase and H+-ATPase capacities only increased in response to elevated CO2 and warming indicating the absence of thermal compensation under CO2. We conclude that in vivo ion regulatory energy demand is lowered under moderately elevated CO2 levels despite the stronger thermal response of total gill respiration and the upregulation of F1Fo-ATPase. This effect is maintained at elevated temperature.
Further details:
Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Epitalon, Jean-Marie; Lavigne, Héloise (2015): seacarb: seawater carbonate chemistry with R. R package version 3.0.6. https://cran.r-project.org/package=seacarb
Comment:
In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Gattuso et al, 2015) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI). The date of carbonate chemistry calculation is 2015-08-06
Parameter(s):
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1SpeciesSpeciesKreiss, Cornelia M
2FigureFigKreiss, Cornelia M
3TissuesTissuesKreiss, Cornelia Mgill tissue
4ConcentrationConcµmol/lKreiss, Cornelia MMetabolite concentrations (succinate µM)
5ConcentrationConcµmol/lKreiss, Cornelia MMetabolite concentrations (lactate µM)
6Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmKreiss, Cornelia MTreatment
7Treatment: temperatureTreat temp°CKreiss, Cornelia Mincubation temperature
8Treatment: temperatureTreat temp°CKreiss, Cornelia Macute experimental temperature
9Respiration rate, oxygenResp O2µmol/g/hKreiss, Cornelia Mgill respiration MO2
10Respiration rate, oxygen, standard deviationResp O2 std dev±Kreiss, Cornelia MCalculatedgill respiration MO2
11DescriptionDescriptionKreiss, Cornelia Minhibited process
12Respiration rate, oxygenResp O2µmol/g/hKreiss, Cornelia MMO2
13Respiration rate, oxygen, standard deviationResp O2 std dev±Kreiss, Cornelia MCalculatedMO2
14FractionFrac%Kreiss, Cornelia Mfraction of gill respiration
15Standard deviationStd dev±Kreiss, Cornelia Mfraction of gill respiration
16EnzymeEnzymeKreiss, Cornelia M
17Adenosine triphosphatase activityATPase actµmol/g/hKreiss, Cornelia Menzyme capacity
18Standard deviationStd dev±Kreiss, Cornelia Menzyme capacity
19Adenosine triphosphatase activityATPase actµmol/g/hKreiss, Cornelia MF1Fo-ATPase
20Sodium/Potassium adenosine triphosphatase activityNa/K-ATPase actµmol/g/hKreiss, Cornelia M
21Adenosine triphosphatase activityATPase actµmol/g/hKreiss, Cornelia MH+-ATPase
22Temperature, waterTemp°CKreiss, Cornelia MCTD, SEA-BIRD SBE 911plus
23Temperature, water, standard deviationTemp std dev±Kreiss, Cornelia MTemperature
24Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmKreiss, Cornelia M
25Partial pressure of carbon dioxide, standard deviationpCO2 std dev±Kreiss, Cornelia M
26pHpHKreiss, Cornelia MNBS scale
27pH, standard deviationpH std dev±Kreiss, Cornelia MNBS scale
28pHpHKreiss, Cornelia Mtotal scale
29pH, standard deviationpH std dev±Kreiss, Cornelia Mtotal scale
30SalinitySalKreiss, Cornelia M
31Salinity, standard deviationSal std dev±Kreiss, Cornelia M
32Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICµmol/lKreiss, Cornelia M
33Carbon, inorganic, dissolved, standard deviationDIC std dev±Kreiss, Cornelia M
34Carbonate system computation flagCSC flagYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
35pHpHYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)total scale
36Carbon dioxideCO2µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
37Fugacity of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)fCO2water_SST_wetµatmYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
38Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
39Bicarbonate ion[HCO3]-µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
40Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
41Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICµmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
42Alkalinity, totalATµmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
43Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
44Calcite saturation stateOmega CalYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
Size:
2064 data points

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