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Kroeker, Kristy J; Micheli, Florenza; Gambi, Maria Cristina; Martz, Todd R (2011): Seawater carbonate chemistry and benthic marine community during experiments, 2011. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Kroeker, KJ et al. (2011): Divergent ecosystem responses within a benthic marine community to ocean acidification. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(35), 14515-14520,

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Ocean acidification is predicted to impact all areas of the oceans and affect a diversity of marine organisms. However, the diversity of responses among species prevents clear predictions about the impact of acidification at the ecosystem level. Here, we used shallow water CO2 vents in the Mediterranean Sea as a model system to examine emergent ecosystem responses to ocean acidification in rocky reef communities. We assessed in situ benthic invertebrate communities in three distinct pH zones (ambient, low, and extreme low), which differed in both the mean and variability of seawater pH along a continuous gradient. We found fewer taxa, reduced taxonomic evenness, and lower biomass in the extreme low pH zones. However, the number of individuals did not differ among pH zones, suggesting that there is density compensation through population blooms of small acidification-tolerant taxa. Furthermore, the trophic structure of the invertebrate community shifted to fewer trophic groups and dominance by generalists in extreme low pH, suggesting that there may be a simplification of food webs with ocean acidification. Despite high variation in individual species' responses, our findings indicate that ocean acidification decreases the diversity, biomass, and trophic complexity of benthic marine communities. These results suggest that a loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function is expected under extreme acidification scenarios.
In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Lavigne and Gattuso, 2011) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI).
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1Experimental treatmentExp treatKroeker, Kristy J
2SiteSiteKroeker, Kristy J
3SalinitySalKroeker, Kristy JGuildline autosal salinometer
4Salinity, standard deviationSal std dev±Kroeker, Kristy J
5Temperature, waterTemp°CKroeker, Kristy JHoneywell Durafet pH sensors
6Temperature, standard deviationT std dev±Kroeker, Kristy J
7Alkalinity, totalATµmol/kgKroeker, Kristy JPotentiometric open-cell titration
8Alkalinity, total, standard deviationAT std dev±Kroeker, Kristy J
9Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICµmol/kgKroeker, Kristy JCalculated using seacarb
10Carbon, inorganic, dissolved, standard deviationDIC std dev±Kroeker, Kristy J
11pHpHKroeker, Kristy JHoneywell Durafet pH sensorsTotal scale
12pH, standard deviationpH std dev±Kroeker, Kristy J
13Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmKroeker, Kristy JCalculated using seacarb
14Carbon dioxide, partial pressure, standard deviationpCO2 std dev±Kroeker, Kristy J
15Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgKroeker, Kristy JCalculated using seacarb
16Aragonite saturation state, standard deviationOmega Arg std dev±Kroeker, Kristy J
17Calcite saturation stateOmega CalKroeker, Kristy JCalculated using seacarb
18Calcite saturation state, standard deviationOmega Cal std dev±Kroeker, Kristy J
19Sample IDSample IDKroeker, Kristy J
20AmphipodaAmphipoda#/m2Kroeker, Kristy J
21GastropodaGastropoda#/m2Kroeker, Kristy J
22IsopodaIsopoda#/m2Kroeker, Kristy J
23PolychaetaPolychaeta#/m2Kroeker, Kristy J
24DecapodaDecapoda#/m2Kroeker, Kristy J
25SipunculaSipuncula#/m2Kroeker, Kristy J
26TanaidaceaTanaidacea#/m2Kroeker, Kristy J
27BivalviaBivalvia#/m2Kroeker, Kristy J
28AmphipodaAmphipoda#Kroeker, Kristy J
29GastropodaGastropoda#Kroeker, Kristy J
30IsopodaIsopoda#Kroeker, Kristy J
31PolychaetaPolychaeta#Kroeker, Kristy J
32DecapodaDecapoda#Kroeker, Kristy J
33SipunculaSipuncula#Kroeker, Kristy J
34TanaidaceaTanaidacea#Kroeker, Kristy J
35BivalviaBivalvia#Kroeker, Kristy J
36Carbonate system computation flagCSC flagNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
37Carbon dioxideCO2µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
38Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
39Fugacity of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)fCO2water_SST_wetµatmNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
40Bicarbonate ion[HCO3]-µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
41Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
42Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICµmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
43Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
44Calcite saturation stateOmega CalNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
1056 data points

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