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García-Herrera, Ricardo; Können, Gunther P; Wheeler, Dennis A; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; Jones, Philip D; Koek, Frits B (2010): Meteorological observations during Santa Balvina cruise from Cádiz to Mar Pacífico started at 1780-12-17. Archivo Museo Naval Madrid, Spain, PANGAEA,, In: Jones, Philip D; Wheeler, Dennis A; Können, Gunther P; Koek, Frits B; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; García-Herrera, Ricardo (2007): Climatological observations from ship logbooks between 1750 and 1854 (release 2.1). PANGAEA,

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Related to:
García-Herrera, Ricardo; Können, Gunther P; Wheeler, Dennis A; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; Jones, Philip D; Koek, Frits B (2005): CLIWOC: A Climatological Database for the World's Oceans 1750–1854 (and 10 more publications about CLIWOC results in the same volume). Climatic Change, 73(1-2), 1-12ff,
Median Latitude: -25.170053 * Median Longitude: -48.804309 * South-bound Latitude: -62.400000 * West-bound Longitude: -87.270000 * North-bound Latitude: 33.650000 * East-bound Longitude: -10.150000
Date/Time Start: 1780-12-17T13:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1781-08-14T00:00:00
Santa_Balvina_17801217_MS_1625 * Latitude: 36.070000 * Longitude: -6.730000 * Date/Time Start: 1780-12-17T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1781-08-14T00:00:00 * Campaign: Cliwoc_cruise * Device: Underway cruise track measurements (CT) * Comment: Ship: Santa Balvina (Fragata), Voyage: Cádiz - Mar Pacífico, 1st Observer: Román de Novia y Salcedo (Capitan)
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
4Wind directiondddegWind direction (from which the wind is blowing) in whole degrees from: 1-360; 361 = calm, 362 = variable. It is not clear from many logbook entries whether the wind direction has been corrected for the magnetic variation (or declination). To avoid any misunderstanding, all winds from reports that included a valid position in the period 1750-1854 were corrected. All other wind directions are given without being corrected.
5Wind speedffm/scalculated from the descriptive terms of wind force given in the observations
6LandmarkLandmarkName of first landmark
7BearingBearingBearing of the first landmark
8Distance to landmarkDistancearbitrary unitsDistance to the first landmark
9--1 If position is considered to be coastal (in port or near coastal disturbances)
10CommentCommentLife on board
11CourseCourseCourse of the ship during the past 24 hours
12DistanceDistancearbitrary unitsDistance travelled during the previous 24 hours
13CommentCommentOther remarks, that were not possible to put in the other remark fields
14Comment 2 (continued)Comm 2Other remarks
15DeclinationDecldegIt is generally accepted by the CLIWOC team that the wind directions, reported by the ships officers, were relative to the magnetic North direction. Navigators were well aware of the difference between the true and magnetic north direction, but the compasses (we assumed that the bearing-compasses were mostly used for determining the wind direction) were not always adjusted. Therefore the wind direction has to be corrected. The magnetic declination (or variation, as it is known on board ships) is given for the whole CLIWOC period (1750-1850) for every 5x5 degree square. The number was added to the wind direction to get the true wind direction.
16Wind direction descriptionWind dir descrAll reported wind directions on this day. The wind direction is the direction that points to where the wind comes from.
17Current speed descriptionV descr
18Wind force descriptionWind force descrAll reported wind forces on this day
19Present weatherwwWeather description
20Precipitation descriptionPrecip descr
21State of the sea descriptionState sea descr
22GustsGusts1 If wind gusts are reported
23Precipitation/RainRain1 If rain was reported
24FogFog1 If fog was reported
25Snow typeSnow1 If snow was reported
26ThunderThunder1 If thunder and or lightning was reported
27HailHail1 If hail was reported
28Sea iceSea ice1 If sea-ice or icebergs were reported
30IdentificationIDCLIWOC 2.1 line number
3176 data points

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