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García-Herrera, Ricardo; Können, Gunther P; Wheeler, Dennis A; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; Jones, Philip D; Koek, Frits B (2010): Meteorological observations during Purisima Concepción cruise from Cádiz to Cádiz started at 1782-06-04. Archivo Museo Naval Madrid, Spain, PANGAEA,, In: Jones, Philip D; Wheeler, Dennis A; Können, Gunther P; Koek, Frits B; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; García-Herrera, Ricardo (2007): Climatological observations from ship logbooks between 1750 and 1854 (release 2.1). PANGAEA,

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Related to:
García-Herrera, Ricardo; Können, Gunther P; Wheeler, Dennis A; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; Jones, Philip D; Koek, Frits B (2005): CLIWOC: A Climatological Database for the World's Oceans 1750–1854 (and 10 more publications about CLIWOC results in the same volume). Climatic Change, 73(1-2), 1-12ff,
Median Latitude: 44.291429 * Median Longitude: -9.975429 * South-bound Latitude: 36.000000 * West-bound Longitude: -16.180000 * North-bound Latitude: 49.580000 * East-bound Longitude: -6.040000
Date/Time Start: 1782-06-04T12:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1782-07-30T00:00:00
Purisima_Concepción_17820604_MS_2554 * Latitude Start: 36.070000 * Longitude Start: -6.730000 * Latitude End: 36.070000 * Longitude End: -6.730000 * Date/Time Start: 1782-06-04T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1782-07-30T00:00:00 * Campaign: Cliwoc_cruise * Device: Underway cruise track measurements (CT) * Comment: Ship: Purisima Concepción, Voyage: Cádiz - Cádiz ?, 1st Observer: Juan Bautista Bonet (Almirante), Other ship information: SEGUNDA CAMPAÑA DE LA ESCUADRA MANDADA POR EL GENERAL EN JEFE EXCMO. SR. D. LUIS DE CÓRDOBA, QUE DA PRINCIPIO EN 23 DE MAYO DE 1782.
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
4Wind directiondddegWind direction (from which the wind is blowing) in whole degrees from: 1-360; 361 = calm, 362 = variable. It is not clear from many logbook entries whether the wind direction has been corrected for the magnetic variation (or declination). To avoid any misunderstanding, all winds from reports that included a valid position in the period 1750-1854 were corrected. All other wind directions are given without being corrected.
5Wind speedffm/scalculated from the descriptive terms of wind force given in the observations
6LandmarkLandmarkName of first landmark
7BearingBearingBearing of the first landmark
8Distance to landmarkDistancearbitrary unitsDistance to the first landmark
9CourseCourseCourse of the ship during the past 24 hours
10DistanceDistancearbitrary unitsDistance travelled during the previous 24 hours
11CommentCommentOther remarks, that were not possible to put in the other remark fields
12Comment 2 (continued)Comm 2Other remarks
13DeclinationDecldegIt is generally accepted by the CLIWOC team that the wind directions, reported by the ships officers, were relative to the magnetic North direction. Navigators were well aware of the difference between the true and magnetic north direction, but the compasses (we assumed that the bearing-compasses were mostly used for determining the wind direction) were not always adjusted. Therefore the wind direction has to be corrected. The magnetic declination (or variation, as it is known on board ships) is given for the whole CLIWOC period (1750-1850) for every 5x5 degree square. The number was added to the wind direction to get the true wind direction.
14Wind direction descriptionWind dir descrAll reported wind directions on this day. The wind direction is the direction that points to where the wind comes from.
15Wind force descriptionWind force descrAll reported wind forces on this day
16Present weatherwwWeather description
17Precipitation descriptionPrecip descr
18State of the sea descriptionState sea descr
20GustsGusts1 If wind gusts are reported
21Precipitation/RainRain1 If rain was reported
22FogFog1 If fog was reported
23Snow typeSnow1 If snow was reported
24ThunderThunder1 If thunder and or lightning was reported
25HailHail1 If hail was reported
26Sea iceSea ice1 If sea-ice or icebergs were reported
28IdentificationIDCLIWOC 2.1 line number
942 data points

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