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García-Herrera, Ricardo; Können, Gunther P; Wheeler, Dennis A; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; Jones, Philip D; Koek, Frits B (2010): Meteorological observations during MENTOR cruise from Rammekens to Simonsbaai started at 1793-04-06. Nationaal Archief of the Netherlands, Den Haag, Netherland, PANGAEA,, In: Jones, Philip D; Wheeler, Dennis A; Können, Gunther P; Koek, Frits B; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; García-Herrera, Ricardo (2007): Climatological observations from ship logbooks between 1750 and 1854 (release 2.1). PANGAEA,

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Related to:
García-Herrera, Ricardo; Können, Gunther P; Wheeler, Dennis A; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; Jones, Philip D; Koek, Frits B (2005): CLIWOC: A Climatological Database for the World's Oceans 1750–1854 (and 10 more publications about CLIWOC results in the same volume). Climatic Change, 73(1-2), 1-12ff,
Median Latitude: -9.628125 * Median Longitude: -15.465000 * South-bound Latitude: -35.770000 * West-bound Longitude: -27.070000 * North-bound Latitude: 49.920000 * East-bound Longitude: 18.690000
Date/Time Start: 1793-04-06T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1793-07-13T00:00:00
Mentor_17930406_VOC_152_11437 * Latitude Start: 51.430000 * Longitude Start: 3.490000 * Latitude End: -33.380000 * Longitude End: 17.270000 * Date/Time Start: 1793-04-06T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1793-07-13T00:00:00 * Campaign: Cliwoc_cruise * Device: Underway cruise track measurements (CT) * Comment: Ship: Mentor, Voyage: Rammekens - Simonsbaai, 1st Observer: Ulke Barendsz (Kapitein), Company: VOC-Z, Dutch Asiatic Shipping Number: 4746.4, Other ship information: GEBOUWD IN 1784, IN 1789 KOCHT DE KAMER VAN ZEELAND HET SCHIP VOOR F36.000 VAN J.C. CITTERS EN CATTEAU, ZEELAND. LAADVERMOGEN: 560 TON, BEMANNING: 31 MAN
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
4Wind directiondddegWind direction (from which the wind is blowing) in whole degrees from: 1-360; 361 = calm, 362 = variable. It is not clear from many logbook entries whether the wind direction has been corrected for the magnetic variation (or declination). To avoid any misunderstanding, all winds from reports that included a valid position in the period 1750-1854 were corrected. All other wind directions are given without being corrected.
5Wind speedffm/scalculated from the descriptive terms of wind force given in the observations
6Image numberImageIdentification Number of the original image
7LandmarkLandmarkName of first landmark
8BearingBearingBearing of the first landmark
9Distance to landmarkDistancearbitrary unitsDistance to the first landmark
10LandmarkLandmarkName of second landmark
11BearingBearingBearing of the second landmark
12Distance to landmarkDistancearbitrary unitsDistance to the second landmark
13LandmarkLandmarkName of third landmark
14BearingBearingBearing of the third landmark
15Distance to landmarkDistancearbitrary unitsDistance to the third landmark
16--1 If position is considered to be coastal (in port or near coastal disturbances)
17WatchWatchName of the period of 4 hours which is known as a watch or duty on board ships
18GlassesGlassesNumber of glasses within a watch; one watch equals 8 glasses
19CommentCommentLife on board
20Comment 2 (continued)Comm 2Life on board
21CourseCourseCourse of the ship during the past 24 hours
22DistanceDistancearbitrary unitsDistance travelled during the previous 24 hours
23CommentCommentAny remark found in the logbook on this day about the cargo
24CommentCommentAny remark, found in the logbook on this particular day, about the ship, sails, rigging, etc.
25CommentCommentAny remark, found in the logbook on this particular day, about any biological item
26CommentCommentAny remark, found in the logbook on this particular day, about wars and fights in which this ship was involved
27CommentCommentOther remarks, that were not possible to put in the other remark fields
28Comment 2 (continued)Comm 2Other remarks
29Comment 3 (continued)Comm 3Other remarks
30Comment 4 (continued)Comm 4Other remarks
31DeclinationDecldegIt is generally accepted by the CLIWOC team that the wind directions, reported by the ships officers, were relative to the magnetic North direction. Navigators were well aware of the difference between the true and magnetic north direction, but the compasses (we assumed that the bearing-compasses were mostly used for determining the wind direction) were not always adjusted. Therefore the wind direction has to be corrected. The magnetic declination (or variation, as it is known on board ships) is given for the whole CLIWOC period (1750-1850) for every 5x5 degree square. The number was added to the wind direction to get the true wind direction.
32Sensor unitUnitUnits of the amount of water reported at the pump
33Compass, established errorCompass, established e
34Compass, applied correctionCompass, applied correction
35Wind direction descriptionWind dir descrAll reported wind directions on this day. The wind direction is the direction that points to where the wind comes from.
36Current direction descriptionCur dir descrDirection of the current. This direction points to where the current is flowing towards to.
37Current speed descriptionV descr
38Sensor readingReadingarbitrary unitsAmount of water reported at the pump
39Wind force descriptionWind force descrAll reported wind forces on this day
40Present weatherwwWeather description
41Precipitation descriptionPrecip descr
42State of the sea descriptionState sea descr
43Cloud typeCloud type
45GustsGusts1 If wind gusts are reported
46Precipitation/RainRain1 If rain was reported
47FogFog1 If fog was reported
48Snow typeSnow1 If snow was reported
49ThunderThunder1 If thunder and or lightning was reported
50HailHail1 If hail was reported
51Sea iceSea ice1 If sea-ice or icebergs were reported
53IdentificationIDCLIWOC 2.1 line number
2475 data points

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