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García-Herrera, Ricardo; Können, Gunther P; Wheeler, Dennis A; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; Jones, Philip D; Koek, Frits B (2010): Meteorological observations during ACASTA cruise from Road Torn Tortola to The Downs started at 1809-07-04. National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, United Kingdom, PANGAEA,, In: Jones, Philip D; Wheeler, Dennis A; Können, Gunther P; Koek, Frits B; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; García-Herrera, Ricardo (2007): Climatological observations from ship logbooks between 1750 and 1854 (release 2.1). PANGAEA,

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Related to:
García-Herrera, Ricardo; Können, Gunther P; Wheeler, Dennis A; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; Jones, Philip D; Koek, Frits B (2005): CLIWOC: A Climatological Database for the World's Oceans 1750–1854 (and 10 more publications about CLIWOC results in the same volume). Climatic Change, 73(1-2), 1-12ff,
Median Latitude: 38.553095 * Median Longitude: -44.697143 * South-bound Latitude: 19.650000 * West-bound Longitude: -65.350000 * North-bound Latitude: 51.020000 * East-bound Longitude: -5.500000
Date/Time Start: 1809-07-04T16:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1809-08-14T12:00:00
Acasta_18090704_NMM_RUSI/NM/180/9 * Latitude Start: 19.650000 * Longitude Start: -65.350000 * Latitude End: 49.600000 * Longitude End: -5.500000 * Date/Time Start: 1809-07-04T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1809-08-14T00:00:00 * Campaign: Cliwoc_cruise * Device: Underway cruise track measurements (CT) * Comment: Ship: Acasta (5th Rate Frigate), Voyage: Road Torn Tortola - The Downs, 1st Observer: Philip Beaver (Captain), Company: Royal Navy, Other ship information: 40G 1127BM
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
4Wind directiondddegWind direction (from which the wind is blowing) in whole degrees from: 1-360; 361 = calm, 362 = variable. It is not clear from many logbook entries whether the wind direction has been corrected for the magnetic variation (or declination). To avoid any misunderstanding, all winds from reports that included a valid position in the period 1750-1854 were corrected. All other wind directions are given without being corrected.
5Wind speedffm/scalculated from the descriptive terms of wind force given in the observations
6Pressure, atmosphericPPPPhPaNo temperature correction was applied. The following factors have been used for the conversion to hPa: 2.54 cm in an inch; 13.596 specific gravity of mercury; 980.65 cm/s gravity at 45° latitude
7Temperature, airTTT°C
8LandmarkLandmarkName of first landmark
9BearingBearingBearing of the first landmark
10Distance to landmarkDistancearbitrary unitsDistance to the first landmark
11CourseCourseCourse of the ship during the past 24 hours
12DistanceDistancearbitrary unitsDistance travelled during the previous 24 hours
13CommentCommentOther remarks, that were not possible to put in the other remark fields
14DeclinationDecldegIt is generally accepted by the CLIWOC team that the wind directions, reported by the ships officers, were relative to the magnetic North direction. Navigators were well aware of the difference between the true and magnetic north direction, but the compasses (we assumed that the bearing-compasses were mostly used for determining the wind direction) were not always adjusted. Therefore the wind direction has to be corrected. The magnetic declination (or variation, as it is known on board ships) is given for the whole CLIWOC period (1750-1850) for every 5x5 degree square. The number was added to the wind direction to get the true wind direction.
15Sensor readingReadingarbitrary unitsReading of the (outside) air thermometer
16Sensor readingReadingarbitrary unitsReading of the air pressure
17Wind direction descriptionWind dir descrAll reported wind directions on this day. The wind direction is the direction that points to where the wind comes from.
18Wind force descriptionWind force descrAll reported wind forces on this day
19Present weatherwwWeather description
20Precipitation descriptionPrecip descr
21State of the sea descriptionState sea descr
23GustsGusts1 If wind gusts are reported
24Precipitation/RainRain1 If rain was reported
25FogFog1 If fog was reported
26Snow typeSnow1 If snow was reported
27ThunderThunder1 If thunder and or lightning was reported
28HailHail1 If hail was reported
29Sea iceSea ice1 If sea-ice or icebergs were reported
31IdentificationIDCLIWOC 2.1 line number
979 data points

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