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Melles, Martin (1991): Sedimentology at the continental margin of the southern Weddell Sea. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.729620, Supplement to: Melles, M (1991): Paläoglaziologie und Paläozeanographie im Spätquartär am Kontinentalrand des südlichen Weddellmeeres, Antarktis (Late Quaternary paleoglaciology and paleoceanography at the continental margin of the southern Weddell Sea, Antarctica). Berichte zur Polarforschung = Reports on Polar Research, 81, 190 pp, https://doi.org/10.2312/BzP_0081_1991

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Abstract:
During four expeditions with RV "Polarstern" at the continental margin of the southern Weddell Sea, profiling and geological sampling were carried out. A detailed bathymetric map was constructed from echo-sounding data. Sub-bottom profiles, classified into nine echotypes, have been mapped and interpreted. Sedimentological analyses were carried out on 32 undisturbed box grab surface samples, as well as on sediment cores from 9 sites. Apart from the description of the sediments and the investigation of sedimentary structures on X-radiographs the following characteristics were determined: grain-size distributions; carbonate and Corg content; component distibutions in different grain-size fractions; stable oxygen and carbon isotopes in planktic and, partly, in benthic foraminifers; and physical properties. The stratigraphy is based On 14C-dating, oxygen isotope Stages and, at one site, On paleomagnetic measurements and 230Th-analyses The sediments represent the period of deposition from the last glacial maximum until recent time. They are composed predominantly of terrigenous components. The formation of the sediments was controlled by glaciological, hydrographical and gravitational processes. Variations in the sea-ice coverage influenced biogenic production. The ice sheet and icebergs were important media for sediment transport; their grounding caused compaction and erosion of glacial marine sediments on the outer continental shelf. The circulation and the physical and chemical properties of the water masses controlled the transport of fine-grained material, biogenic production and its preservation. Gravitational transport processes were the inain mode of sediment movements on the continental slope.
The continental ice sheet advanced to the shelf edge and grounded On the sea-floor, presumably later than 31,000 y.B.P. This ice movement was linked with erosion of shelf sediments and a very high sediment supply to the upper continental slope from the adiacent southern shelf. The erosional surface On the shelf is documented in the sub-bottom profiles as a regular, acoustically hard reflector. Dense sea-ice coverage above the lower and middle continental slope resulted in the almost total breakdown of biogenic production. Immediately in front of the ice sheet, above the upper continental slope, a <50 km broad coastal polynya existed at least periodically. Biogenic production was much higher in this polynya than elsewhere. Intense sea-ice formation in the polynya probably led to the development of a high salinity and, consequently, dense water mass, which flowed as a stream near bottom across the continental slope into the deep sea, possibly contributing to bottom water formation. The current velocities of this water mass presumably had seasonal variations. The near-bottom flow of the dense water mass, in combination with the gravity transport processes that arose from the high rates of sediment accumulation, probably led to erosion that progressed laterally from east to West along a SW to NE-trending, 200 to 400 m high morphological step at the continental slope.
During the period 14,000 to 13,000 y.B.P., during the postglacial temperature and sea-level rise, intense changes in the environmental conditions occured. Primarily, the ice masses on the outer continental shelf started to float. Intense calving processes resulted in a rapid retreat of the ice edge to the south. A consequence of this retreat was, that the source area of the ice-rafted debris changed from the adjacent southern shelf to the eastern Weddell Sea. As the ice retreated, the gravitational transport processes On the continental slope ceased. Soon after the beginning of the ice retreat, the sea-ice coverage in the whole research area decreased. Simultaneously, the formation of the high salinity dense bottom water ceased, and the sediment composition at the continental slope then became influenced by the water masses of the Weddell Gyre.
The formation of very cold Ice Shelf Water (ISW) started beneath the southward retreating Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf somewhat later than 12,000 y.B.P. The ISW streamed primarily with lower velocities than those of today across the continental slope, and was conducted along the erosional step on the slope into the deep sea. At 7,500 y.B.P., the grounding line of the ice masses had retreated > 400 km to the south. A progressive retreat by additional 200 to 300 km probably led to the development of an Open water column beneath the ice south of Berkner Island at about 4,000 y.B.P. This in turn may have led to an additional ISW, which had formed beneath the Ronne Ice Shelf, to flow towards the Filcher Ice Shelf. As a result, increased flow of ISW took place over the continental margin, possibly enabling the ISW to spill over the erosional step On the upper continental slope towards the West. Since that time, there is no longer any documentation of the ISW in the sedimentary Parameters on the lower continental slope. There, recent sediments reflect the lower water masses of the Weddell Gyre. The sea-ice coverage in early Holocene time was again so dense that biogenic production was significantly restricted.
Related to:
Melles, Martin; Kuhn, Gerhard; Fütterer, Dieter K; Meischner, Dieter (1995): Processes of modern sedimentation in the Southern Weddell Sea, Antarctica - evidence from surface sediments. Polarforschung, 64(2), 45-74, hdl:10013/epic.29727.d001
Coverage:
Median Latitude: -76.175294 * Median Longitude: -37.043437 * South-bound Latitude: -77.737290 * West-bound Longitude: -61.321667 * North-bound Latitude: -65.050000 * East-bound Longitude: -5.616660
Date/Time Start: 1983-02-13T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1988-02-03T17:39:00
Event(s):
PS1010-1 (PS01/154) * Latitude: -77.241700 * Longitude: -34.540000 * Date/Time: 1983-02-13T00:00:00 * Elevation: -476.0 m * Penetration: 0.26 m * Recovery: 0.23 m * Location: Filchner Trough * Campaign: ANT-I/2 (PS01) * Basis: Polarstern * Method/Device: Giant box corer (GKG)
PS1011-1 (PS01/155) * Latitude: -77.283000 * Longitude: -35.395000 * Date/Time: 1983-02-13T00:00:00 * Elevation: -721.0 m * Penetration: 0.34 m * Recovery: 0.33 m * Location: Filchner Trough * Campaign: ANT-I/2 (PS01) * Basis: Polarstern * Method/Device: Giant box corer (GKG)
PS1012-1 (PS01/156) * Latitude: -77.304500 * Longitude: -35.814500 * Date/Time: 1983-02-13T00:00:00 * Elevation: -1021.0 m * Penetration: 0.5 m * Recovery: 0.43 m * Location: Filchner Trough * Campaign: ANT-I/2 (PS01) * Basis: Polarstern * Method/Device: Giant box corer (GKG)
Size:
209 datasets

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Datasets listed in this publication series

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  1. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components of sediment core PS1010-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.622935
  2. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components in the sand fraction of sediment core PS1010-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.623648
  3. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components of sediment core PS1010-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.624050
  4. Melles, M (1991): Grain size distribution of sediment core PS1010-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626358
  5. Melles, M (1991): Grain size fraction analysis of sediment core PS1010-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626388
  6. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components of sediment core PS1011-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.622936
  7. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components in the sand fraction of sediment core PS1011-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.623649
  8. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components of sediment core PS1011-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.624051
  9. Melles, M (1991): Grain size distribution of sediment core PS1011-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626359
  10. Melles, M (1991): Grain size fraction analysis of sediment core PS1011-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626389
  11. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components of sediment core PS1012-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.622937
  12. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components in the sand fraction of sediment core PS1012-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.623650
  13. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components of sediment core PS1012-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.624052
  14. Melles, M (1991): Grain size distribution of sediment core PS1012-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626360
  15. Melles, M (1991): Grain size fraction analysis of sediment core PS1012-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626390
  16. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components of sediment core PS1013-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.622938
  17. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components in the sand fraction of sediment core PS1013-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.623651
  18. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components of sediment core PS1013-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.624053
  19. Melles, M (1991): Grain size distribution of sediment core PS1013-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626361
  20. Melles, M (1991): Grain size fraction analysis of sediment core PS1013-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626391
  21. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components of sediment core PS1014-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.622939
  22. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components in the sand fraction of sediment core PS1014-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.623652
  23. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components of sediment core PS1014-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.624054
  24. Melles, M (1991): Grain size distribution of sediment core PS1014-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626362
  25. Melles, M (1991): Grain size fraction analysis of sediment core PS1014-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626392
  26. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components of sediment core PS1016-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.622940
  27. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components in the sand fraction of sediment core PS1016-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.623653
  28. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components of sediment core PS1016-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.624055
  29. Melles, M (1991): Grain size distribution of sediment core PS1016-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626363
  30. Melles, M (1991): Grain size fraction analysis of sediment core PS1016-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626393
  31. Melles, M (1991): Grain size distribution of sediment core PS1017-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626364
  32. Melles, M (1991): Grain size fraction analysis of sediment core PS1017-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.621004
  33. Melles, M (1991): Grain size fraction analysis of sediment core PS1017-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.620995
  34. Melles, M (1991): Mineral composition of clay fraction of sediment core PS1017-1 (Table 17). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.633547
  35. Melles, M (1991): Grain size fraction analysis of sediment core PS1017-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626394
  36. Melles, M (1991): Grain size distribution of sediment core PS1018-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626365
  37. Melles, M (1991): Grain size fraction analysis of sediment core PS1018-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.620996
  38. Melles, M (1991): Grain size fraction analysis of sediment core PS1018-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.621005
  39. Melles, M (1991): Mineral composition of clay fraction of sediment core PS1018-1 (Table 17). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.633548
  40. Melles, M (1991): Grain size fraction analysis of sediment core PS1018-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626395
  41. Melles, M (1991): Grain size distribution of sediment core PS1019-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626366
  42. Melles, M (1991): Mineral composition of clay fraction of sediment core PS1019-1 (Table 17). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.633549
  43. Melles, M (1991): Grain size fraction analysis of sediment core PS1019-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626396
  44. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components of sediment core PS1215-2. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.622941
  45. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components in the sand fraction of sediment core PS1215-2. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.623654
  46. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components of sediment core PS1215-2. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.624056
  47. Melles, M (1991): Grain size distribution of sediment core PS1215-2. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626367
  48. Melles, M (1991): Grain size fraction analysis of sediment core PS1215-2. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626397
  49. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components of sediment core PS1216-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.622942
  50. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components in the sand fraction of sediment core PS1216-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.623655
  51. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components of sediment core PS1216-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.624057
  52. Melles, M (1991): Grain size distribution of sediment core PS1216-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626368
  53. Melles, M (1991): Grain size fraction analysis of sediment core PS1216-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.620997
  54. Melles, M (1991): Grain size fraction analysis of sediment core PS1216-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626398
  55. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components of sediment core PS1217-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.622943
  56. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components in the sand fraction of sediment core PS1217-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.623656
  57. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components of sediment core PS1217-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.624058
  58. Melles, M (1991): Grain size distribution of sediment core PS1217-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626369
  59. Melles, M (1991): Grain size fraction analysis of sediment core PS1217-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.620998
  60. Melles, M (1991): Grain size fraction analysis of sediment core PS1217-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626399
  61. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components of sediment core PS1219-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.622944
  62. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components in the sand fraction of sediment core PS1219-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.623657
  63. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components of sediment core PS1219-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.624059
  64. Melles, M (1991): Grain size distribution of sediment core PS1219-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626370
  65. Melles, M (1991): Grain size fraction analysis of sediment core PS1219-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.620999
  66. Melles, M (1991): Grain size fraction analysis of sediment core PS1219-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626400
  67. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components of sediment core PS1220-3. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.622945
  68. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components in the sand fraction of sediment core PS1220-3. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.623658
  69. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components of sediment core PS1220-3. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.624060
  70. Melles, M (1991): Grain size distribution of sediment core PS1220-3. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626371
  71. Melles, M (1991): Grain size fraction analysis of sediment core PS1220-3. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.621000
  72. Melles, M (1991): Grain size fraction analysis of sediment core PS1220-3. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626401
  73. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components of sediment core PS1222-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.622946
  74. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components in the sand fraction of sediment core PS1222-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.623659
  75. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components of sediment core PS1222-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.624061
  76. Melles, M (1991): Grain size distribution of sediment core PS1222-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626372
  77. Melles, M (1991): Grain size fraction analysis of sediment core PS1222-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.621001
  78. Melles, M (1991): Grain size fraction analysis of sediment core PS1222-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626402
  79. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components of sediment core PS1223-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.622947
  80. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components in the sand fraction of sediment core PS1223-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.623660
  81. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components of sediment core PS1223-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.624062
  82. Melles, M (1991): Grain size distribution of sediment core PS1223-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626373
  83. Melles, M (1991): Grain size fraction analysis of sediment core PS1223-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.621002
  84. Melles, M (1991): Grain size fraction analysis of sediment core PS1223-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626403
  85. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components of sediment core PS1275-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.622948
  86. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components in the sand fraction of sediment core PS1275-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.623672
  87. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components of sediment core PS1275-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.624063
  88. Melles, M (1991): Grain size distribution of sediment core PS1275-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626374
  89. Melles, M (1991): Grain size fraction analysis of sediment core PS1275-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626404
  90. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components of sediment core PS1276-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.622949
  91. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components in the sand fraction of sediment core PS1276-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.623673
  92. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components of sediment core PS1276-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.624064
  93. Melles, M (1991): Grain size distribution of sediment core PS1276-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626375
  94. Melles, M (1991): Grain size fraction analysis of sediment core PS1276-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626405
  95. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components of sediment core PS1277-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.622950
  96. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components in the sand fraction of sediment core PS1277-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.623663
  97. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components of sediment core PS1277-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.624065
  98. Melles, M (1991): Grain size distribution of sediment core PS1277-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626376
  99. Melles, M (1991): Grain size fraction analysis of sediment core PS1277-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.626406
  100. Melles, M (1991): Analyses of the recent components of sediment core PS1278-1. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.622951

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