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Laukert, Georgi; Makhotin, Mikhail; Petrova, Mariia V; Vesman, Anna; Frank, Martin; Hathorne, Ed C; Bauch, Dorothea; Böning, Philipp; Kassens, Heidemarie; Ivanov, Vladimir (2018): Dissolved neodymium (Nd) isotope compositions and rare earth element (REE) concentrations along with stable oxygen isotope compositions measured on water bottle samples collected during PU2014 to the Barents Sea in 2014. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Laukert, Georgi; Makhotin, Mikhail; Petrova, Mariia V; Frank, Martin; Hathorne, Ed C; Bauch, Dorothea; Böning, Philipp; Kassens, Heidemarie (2019): Water mass transformation in the Barents Sea inferred from radiogenic neodymium isotopes, rare earth elements and stable oxygen isotopes. Chemical Geology, 511, 416-430,

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Nearly half the inflow of warm and saline Atlantic Water (AW) to the Arctic Ocean is substantially cooled and freshened in the Barents Sea, which is therefore considered a key region for water mass transformation in the Arctic Mediterranean. Numerous studies have focused on this transformation and the increasing influence of AW on Arctic climate and biodiversity, yet geochemical investigations of these processes have been scarce. Using the first comprehensive data set of the distributions of dissolved radiogenic neodymium (Nd) isotopes (expressed as ɛNd), rare earth elements (REE) and stable oxygen isotope (δ18O) compositions from this region we are able to constrain the transport and transformation of AW in the Barents Sea and to investigate which processes change the chemical composition of the water masses beyond what is expected from circulation and mixing.
Inflowing AW and Norwegian Coastal Water (NCW) both exhibit distinctly unradiogenic ɛNd signatures of -12.4 and -14.5, respectively, whereas cold and dense Polar Water (PW) has considerably more radiogenic ɛNd signatures reaching up to -8.1. Locally formed Barents Sea Atlantic Water (BSAW) and Barents Sea Arctic Atlantic Water (BSAAW) are encountered in the northeastern Barents Sea and have intermediate ɛNd values resulting from admixture of PW containing small amounts of riverine freshwater from the Ob (< ~1.1 %) to AW and NCW. Similar to the Laptev Sea, the dissolved Nd isotope composition in the Barents Sea seems to be mainly controlled by water mass advection and mixing despite its shallow water depth. Strikingly, the BSAW and BSAAW are marked by the lowest REE concentrations reaching 11 pmol/kg for Nd ([Nd]), which in contrast to the Nd isotopes, cannot be attributed to the admixture of REE-rich Ob freshwater to AW or NCW ([Nd] = 16.7, and 22 pmol/kg, respectively) and instead reflects REE removal from the dissolved phase with preferential removal of the light over the heavy REEs. The REE removal is, however, not explainable by estuarine REE behavior alone, suggesting that scavenging by (re)suspended (biogenic) particles occurs locally in the Barents Sea. Regardless of the exact cause of REE depletion, we show that AW transformation is accompanied by geochemical changes independent of water mass mixing.
Related to:
Makhotin, Mikhail; Ivanov, Vladimir (2016): Circulation of the Atlantic water in the Barents Sea based on hydrological survey data and numerical simulation. Proceedings of Hydrometcentre of Russia, 361, 169-191,
Makhotin, Mikhail; Ivanov, Vladimir (2018): Physical oceanography and inorganic nutrients in the Barents Sea from 2012-2014. PANGAEA,
Median Latitude: 76.613375 * Median Longitude: 45.314000 * South-bound Latitude: 71.299000 * West-bound Longitude: 33.477000 * North-bound Latitude: 79.527000 * East-bound Longitude: 58.514000
Date/Time Start: 2014-06-07T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2014-06-24T00:00:00
Minimum DEPTH, water: 5.000 m * Maximum DEPTH, water: 351.830 m
PU2014/042 * Latitude: 71.299000 * Longitude: 33.477000 * Date/Time: 2014-06-07T00:00:00 * Elevation: -250.0 m * Campaign: PU2014 * Basis: Professor Molchanov * Method/Device: CTD/Rosette (CTD-RO)
PU2014/049 * Latitude: 73.500000 * Longitude: 33.498000 * Date/Time: 2014-06-08T00:00:00 * Elevation: -286.0 m * Campaign: PU2014 * Basis: Professor Molchanov * Method/Device: CTD/Rosette (CTD-RO)
PU2014/054 * Latitude: 76.001000 * Longitude: 33.507000 * Date/Time: 2014-06-09T00:00:00 * Elevation: -310.0 m * Campaign: PU2014 * Basis: Professor Molchanov * Method/Device: CTD/Rosette (CTD-RO)
Further Projects:
The Transpolar System of the Arctic Ocean (TRANSDRIFT)
The Changing Arctic Transpolar System (CATS)
Arctic Floating University 2014 (“Плавучий Университет”)
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethod/DeviceComment
1Event labelEventMakhotin, Mikhail
2Date/Time of eventDate/TimeMakhotin, Mikhail
3Latitude of eventLatitudeMakhotin, Mikhail
4Longitude of eventLongitudeMakhotin, Mikhail
5Elevation of eventElevationmMakhotin, Mikhail
6DEPTH, waterDepth watermMakhotin, MikhailGeocode
7Pressure, waterPressdbarLaukert, GeorgiCalculated
8Density, sigma-theta (0)Sigma-thetakg/m3Laukert, GeorgiCalculated
9Density, sigma500Sigma500kg/m3Laukert, GeorgiCalculated
10Temperature, waterTemp°CMakhotin, Mikhail
11Temperature, water, potentialTpot°CLaukert, GeorgiCalculated
12SalinitySalMakhotin, MikhailCTD
13SalinitySalLaukert, Georgisample
14pHpHMakhotin, Mikhail
15OxygenO2µmol/lMakhotin, MikhailRecalculated from ml/l by using (ml/l)*44.66
16Oxygen saturationO2 sat%Makhotin, Mikhail
17SilicateSi(OH)4µmol/lMakhotin, Mikhail
18Phosphate[PO4]3-µmol/lMakhotin, Mikhail
19δ18O, waterδ18O H2O‰ SMOWBauch, Dorothea
20Neodymium, dissolvedNd disspmol/kgLaukert, GeorgiIsotope dilution
21Neodymium, dissolvedNd disspmol/kgLaukert, GeorgiIsotope dilutionrepeat
22Neodymium-143/Neodymium-144 ratio143Nd/144NdLaukert, Georgi
23ε-Neodymiumε-NdLaukert, Georgi
24Neodymium-143/Neodymium-144 ratio, standard deviation143Nd/144Nd std dev±Laukert, Georgi2sigma
25ε-Neodymium, standard deviationε-Nd std dev±Laukert, Georgi2sigma
26Yttrium, dissolvedY disspmol/kgLaukert, Georgi
27Lanthanum, dissolvedLa disspmol/kgLaukert, Georgi
28Cerium, dissolvedCe disspmol/kgLaukert, Georgi
29Praseodymium, dissolvedPr disspmol/kgLaukert, Georgi
30Neodymium, dissolvedNd disspmol/kgLaukert, Georgi
31Samarium, dissolvedSm disspmol/kgLaukert, Georgi
32Europium, dissolvedEu disspmol/kgLaukert, Georgi
33Gadolinium, dissolvedGd disspmol/kgLaukert, Georgi
34Terbium, dissolvedTb disspmol/kgLaukert, Georgi
35Dysprosium, dissolvedDy disspmol/kgLaukert, Georgi
36Holmium, dissolvedHo disspmol/kgLaukert, Georgi
37Erbium, dissolvedEr disspmol/kgLaukert, Georgi
38Thulium, dissolvedTm disspmol/kgLaukert, Georgi
39Ytterbium, dissolvedYb disspmol/kgLaukert, Georgi
40Lutetium, dissolvedLu disspmol/kgLaukert, Georgi
41ClassificationClassificationLaukert, Georgiwater mass classification after Laukert et al. 2018
1023 data points

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