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Jensen, Mari F; Nummelin, Aleksi; Nielsen, Søren B; Sadatzki, Henrik; Sessford, Evangeline; Risebrobakken, Bjørg; Andersson, Carin; Voelker, Antje H L; Roberts, William H G; Pedro, Joel B; Born, Andreas (2017): Sea surface temperature estimates from several sediment cores in the North Atlantic. PANGAEA,, In supplement to: Jensen, MF et al. (2018): A spatiotemporal reconstruction of sea-surface temperatures in the North Atlantic during Dansgaard–Oeschger events 5–8. Climate of the Past, 14(6), 901-922,

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Here, we have calculated new sea-surface temperature estimates over Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events 5-8 (c. 30-40 ka) from 14 sites in the North Atlantic, based on previously published planktic foraminifera relative abundance datasets. These proxy records suggest a large variability in North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures during DO-events of the last glacial period. However, proxy data availability is limited and cannot provide a full spatial picture of the oceanic changes. Therefore, we combine fully coupled, general circulation model simulations with the planktic foraminifera based sea-surface temperature reconstructions to obtain a broader spatial picture of the ocean state during DO-events 5-8. The resulting spatial sea-surface temperature patterns agree over a number of different general circulation models and simulations. We find that sea-surface temperature variability over the DO-events is characterized by colder conditions in the subpolar North Atlantic during stadials than during interstadials, and the variability is linked to changes in the AMOC, and in the sea-ice cover. Forced simulations are needed to capture the strength of the temperature variability and to reconstruct the variability in other climate records not directly linked to the sea-surface temperature reconstructions.
Related to:
Barker, Stephen; Chen, James; Gong, Xun; Jonkers, Lukas; Knorr, Gregor; Thornalley, David JR (2015): Icebergs not the trigger for North Atlantic cold events. Nature, 520(7547), 333-336,
Broecker, Wallace S; Bond, Gerard C; Klas, Mieczyslawa; Clark, Elizabeth; McManus, Jerry F (1992): Distribution of lithic fragments and the planktic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma in quaternary sediments of DSDP Hole 94-609 (Table 2). PANGAEA,
Dokken, Trond (2017): Relative abundance of planktic foraminifera (30-40 ka) in core MD95-2010. Uni Research Climate and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, PANGAEA,
Dokken, Trond; Nisancioglu, Kerim H; Li, Camille; Battisti, David S; Kissel, Catherine (2017): Stable isotope records, IRM, ARM, and relative abundance of planktic foraminifera (25-40 ka) in sediment core MD99-2284. Uni Research Climate and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, PANGAEA,
Elliot, Mary (2017): Planktonic foraminifera abundances in sediment core SU90-24. PANGAEA,
Hagen, Sveinung; Hald, Morten (2017): Stable isotope record and planktonic foraminifera of sediment core JM96-1225/1-GC. PANGAEA,
Hall, Ian R; Colmenero-Hidalgo, Elena; Zahn, Rainer; Peck, Victoria L; Hemming, Sidney R (2017): Planktonic foraminifera in sediment core MD04-2829CQ. PANGAEA,
Kiefer, Thorsten; Sarnthein, Michael (1998): Distribution of planktic foraminifers of sediment core GIK15612-2. PANGAEA,
Labeyrie, Laurent D; Leclaire, Héloïse; Waelbroeck, Claire; Cortijo, Elsa; Duplessy, Jean Claude; Vidal, Laurence; Elliot, Mary; Le Coat, B (2017): Planktonic foraminifera in sediment core CH69-K09. PANGAEA,
Peck, Victoria L (2017): Sedimentology, Sr/Nd and stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of sediment core MD01-2461. PANGAEA,
Salgueiro, Emilia; Voelker, Antje H L; de Abreu, Lucia; Abrantes, Fatima F; Meggers, Helge; Wefer, Gerold (2010): Planktonic foraminiferal abundances, and sea surface and export production reconstructions of sediment core SU92-03. PANGAEA,
van Kreveld, Shirley A; Sarnthein, Michael; Erlenkeuser, Helmut; Grootes, Pieter Meiert; Jung, Simon J A; Pflaumann, Uwe; Voelker, Antje H L (2000): Foraminifera, sedimentological parameters and sea surface temperature and salinity calculated on core SO82_5-2. PANGAEA,
Vogelsang, Elke; Sarnthein, Michael; Pflaumann, Uwe (2004): Distribution of planktic foraminifera in sediment core GIK23415-9. PANGAEA,
Median Latitude: 54.617145 * Median Longitude: -19.479848 * South-bound Latitude: 41.760000 * West-bound Longitude: -47.350000 * North-bound Latitude: 66.684167 * East-bound Longitude: 4.566160
Date/Time Start: 1981-08-20T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2001-09-10T11:03:00
Minimum DEPTH, sediment/rock: 1.0525 m * Maximum DEPTH, sediment/rock: 32.8650 m
162-983A * Latitude: 60.403300 * Longitude: -23.640600 * Date/Time Start: 1995-07-21T11:58:00 * Date/Time End: 1995-07-22T09:29:00 * Elevation: -1983.0 m * Penetration: 254.4 m * Recovery: 264.42 m * Location: North Atlantic Ocean * Campaign: Leg162 * Basis: Joides Resolution * Method/Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL) * Comment: 27 cores; 254.4 m cored; 0 m drilled; 103.9 % recovery
94-609_Site * Latitude: 49.877800 * Longitude: -24.238200 * Date/Time: 1983-07-22T00:00:00 * Elevation: -3883.0 m * Penetration: 9.875 m * Recovery: 6.624 m * Location: North Atlantic/FLANK * Campaign: Leg94 * Basis: Glomar Challenger * Method/Device: Composite Core (COMPCORE) * Comment: 85 cores; 802.1 m cored; 38.4 m drilled; 82.6% recovery
CH69-K09 * Latitude: 41.760000 * Longitude: -47.350000 * Elevation: -4100.0 m * IGSN: BFBGX-111867 * Location: Newfoundland margin * Method/Device: Gravity corer (GC)
The SST calculations build on previously published foraminifera data (see 'Related to'). Where no sample interval is given, this information was not available. Mbsf and mcd depths are the same for all cores except the ODP and DSDP cores, where composite depth scales exist. The other sites are continuous cores and hence there is no need for composite depths.
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethod/DeviceComment
1Event labelEvent
2Sample code/labelSample labelDSDP/ODP/IODP sample designationfor ODP cores
3DEPTH, sediment/rockDepthmGeocode – mbsf
4Depth, compositeDepth compmcd
5Depth, top/minDepth topm
6Depth, bottom/maxDepth botm
7AGEAgeka BPGeocode
8Sea surface temperatureSST°CJensen, Mari FMaximum-likelihood estimation (MLE)
9Sea surface temperatureSST°CJensen, Mari FReconstructed from the percentage of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sinistralMissing SST values for events SO82-5-2 and DSDP94-609 means that the %NP is outside of the constraints for calculating SSTs based on this method (outside of 10-94%)
2141 data points

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