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Badger, Marcus P S; Schmidt, Daniela N; Mackensen, Andreas; Pancost, Richard D (2013): Alkenone stable carbon isotopes, planktic foraminfera stable carbon isotopes, alkenone unsaturation indices and calculated sea surface temperatures and atmospheric pCO2 for ODP Site 165-999. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Badger, MPS et al. (2013): High-resolution alkenone palaeobarometry indicates relatively stable pCO2 during the Pliocene (3.3-2.8 Ma). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A-Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences, 371(2001), 20130094,

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Temperature reconstructions indicate that the Pliocene was ~3 °C warmer globally than today, and several recent reconstructions of Pliocene atmospheric CO2 indicate that it was above pre-industrial levels and similar to those likely to be seen this century. However, many of these reconstructions have been of relatively low temporal resolution, meaning that these records may have failed to capture variations associated with the 41 Kyr glacial-interglacial cycles thought to operate in the Pliocene. Here we present a new, high temporal resolution alkenone carbon isotope based record of pCO2 spanning 2.8 to 3.3 million years ago from ODP Site 999. Our record is of high enough resolution (~19 Kyrs) to resolve glacial-interglacial changes beyond the intrinsic uncertainty of the proxy method. The record suggests that Pliocene CO2 levels were relatively stable, exhibiting variation less than 55 ppm. We perform sensitivity studies to investigate the possible effect of changing sea surface temperature, which highlights the importance of accurate and precise SST reconstructions for alkenone palaeobarometry, but demonstrate that these uncertainties do not affect our conclusions of relatively stable pCO2 levels during this interval.
Latitude: 12.744000 * Longitude: -78.739300
Date/Time Start: 1996-01-10T19:30:00 * Date/Time End: 1996-01-14T23:15:00
Minimum DEPTH, sediment/rock: 91.580 m * Maximum DEPTH, sediment/rock: 105.195 m
165-999A * Latitude: 12.744000 * Longitude: -78.739300 * Date/Time Start: 1996-01-10T19:30:00 * Date/Time End: 1996-01-14T23:15:00 * Elevation: -2828.0 m * Penetration: 566.1 m * Recovery: 534.83 m * Location: Caribbean Sea * Campaign: Leg165 * Basis: Joides Resolution * Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL) * Comment: 61 core; 566.1 m cored; 0 m drilled; 94.5 % recovery
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1Sample code/labelSample labelBadger, Marcus P SODP sample designation
2DEPTH, sediment/rockDepthmGeocode
3AGEAgeka BPGeocode
4Globigerinoides ruber, δ13CG. ruber δ13C‰ PDBBadger, Marcus P S
5Alkenone, unsaturation index UK'37UK'37Badger, Marcus P S
6Sea surface temperature, annual meanSST (1-12)°CBadger, Marcus P S
7Alkenone C37:2, δ13CC37:2 δ13C‰ PDBBadger, Marcus P S
8δ13C, carbonateδ13C carb‰ PDBBadger, Marcus P S
9Sea surface temperature, annual meanSST (1-12)°CBadger, Marcus P Soriginal values in [k], recalulated by subtracting 273.15
10Isotopic fractionationepsilonBadger, Marcus P Sbetween calcite and aqueous CO2 in seawater
11Isotopic fractionationepsilonBadger, Marcus P Sbetween aqueous and gaseous CO2 in seawater
12Henry's law constantkHBadger, Marcus P S
13δ13C, biomassδ13C biom‰ PDBBadger, Marcus P S
14δ13C, carbon dioxide, gaseousδ13C CO2(g)‰ PDBBadger, Marcus P S
15δ13C, carbon dioxide, aquaticδ13C CO2 aqBadger, Marcus P S
16Isotopic fractionation, during photosynthisepsilon pBadger, Marcus P S
17Carbon dioxide, intracellularCO2 inppmvBadger, Marcus P S
18Carbon dioxide, partial pressurepCO2ppmvBadger, Marcus P S
19Carbon dioxide, partial pressure, standard deviationpCO2 std dev±Badger, Marcus P S-
20Carbon dioxide, partial pressure, standard deviationpCO2 std dev±Badger, Marcus P S+
21Carbon dioxide, partial pressure minimumpCO2 minppmvBadger, Marcus P S
22Carbon dioxide, partial pressure maximumpCO2 maxppmvBadger, Marcus P S
535 data points

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