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Wisshak, Max; Schönberg, Christine HL; Form, Armin; Freiwald, André (2014): Sponge bioerosion accelerated by ocean acidification across species and latitudes? doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.831657,
Supplement to: Wisshak, M et al. (2014): Sponge bioerosion accelerated by ocean acidification across species and latitudes? Helgoland Marine Research, 68(2), 253-262, doi:10.1007/s10152-014-0385-4

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Abstract:
In many marine biogeographic realms, bioeroding sponges dominate the internal bioerosion of calcareous substrates such as mollusc beds and coral reef framework. They biochemically dissolve part of the carbonate and liberate so-called sponge chips, a process that is expected to be facilitated and accelerated in a more acidic environment inherent to the present global change. The bioerosion capacity of the demosponge Cliona celata Grant, 1826 in subfossil oyster shells was assessed via alkalinity anomaly technique based on 4 days of experimental exposure to three different levels of carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) at ambient temperature in the cold-temperate waters of Helgoland Island, North Sea. The rate of chemical bioerosion at present-day pCO2 was quantified with 0.08-0.1 kg/m**2/year. Chemical bioerosion was positively correlated with increasing pCO2, with rates more than doubling at carbon dioxide levels predicted for the end of the twenty-first century, clearly confirming that C. celata bioerosion can be expected to be enhanced with progressing ocean acidification (OA). Together with previously published experimental evidence, the present results suggest that OA accelerates sponge bioerosion (1) across latitudes and biogeographic areas, (2) independent of sponge growth form, and (3) for species with or without photosymbionts alike. A general increase in sponge bioerosion with advancing OA can be expected to have a significant impact on global carbonate (re)cycling and may result in widespread negative effects, e.g. on the stability of wild and farmed shellfish populations, as well as calcareous framework builders in tropical and cold-water coral reef ecosystems.
Further details:
Lavigne, Héloise; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre (2011): seacarb: seawater carbonate chemistry with R. R package version 2.4. https://cran.r-project.org/package=seacarb
Comment:
In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Lavigne and Gattuso, 2011) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI). The date of carbonate chemistry calculation by seacarb is 2014-04-04.
Parameter(s):
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1SpeciesSpeciesWisshak, Max
2FigureFigWisshak, Max
3TableTabWisshak, Max
4TreatmentTreatWisshak, Max
5Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmWisshak, Max
6pHpHWisshak, MaxCalculated using CO2SYStotal scale
7Bioerosion rateBioerosionkg/m2/aWisshak, Maxchemical
8Calcium carbonate, dissolvedCaCO3 diss%Wisshak, Maxpercentage of baseline
9Temperature, waterTemp°CWisshak, Max
10Temperature, water, standard deviationTemp std dev±Wisshak, Max
11SalinitySalWisshak, Max
12Salinity, standard deviationSal std dev±Wisshak, Max
13pHpHWisshak, MaxPotentiometricmean, NBS ccale
14pH, standard deviationpH std dev±Wisshak, MaxPotentiometricNBS ccale
15Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICµmol/kgWisshak, MaxCoulometric titration
16Carbon, inorganic, dissolved, standard deviationDIC std dev±Wisshak, MaxCoulometric titration
17Alkalinity, totalATµmol/kgWisshak, MaxPotentiometric titration
18Alkalinity, total, standard deviationAT std dev±Wisshak, MaxPotentiometric titration
19Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmWisshak, MaxCalculated using CO2SYS
20Partial pressure of carbon dioxide, respiration, standard deviationpCO2 resp std dev±Wisshak, MaxCalculated using CO2SYS
21pHpHWisshak, MaxCalculated using CO2SYSmean total scale
22pH, standard deviationpH std dev±Wisshak, MaxCalculated using CO2SYStotal scale
23Bicarbonate ion[HCO3]-µmol/kgWisshak, MaxCalculated using CO2SYS
24Bicarbonate ion, standard deviation[HCO3]- std dev±Wisshak, MaxCalculated using CO2SYS
25Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgWisshak, MaxCalculated using CO2SYS
26Carbonate ion, standard deviation[CO3]2- std dev±Wisshak, MaxCalculated using CO2SYS
27Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgWisshak, MaxCalculated using CO2SYS
28Aragonite saturation state, standard deviationOmega Arg std dev±Wisshak, MaxCalculated using CO2SYS
29Calcite saturation stateOmega CalWisshak, MaxCalculated using CO2SYS
30Calcite saturation state, standard deviationOmega Cal std dev±Wisshak, MaxCalculated using CO2SYS
31NitrateNO3µmol/lWisshak, MaxSpectrophotometric
32Nitrate, standard deviationNO3 std dev±Wisshak, MaxSpectrophotometric
33Nitrite[NO2]-µmol/lWisshak, MaxSpectrophotometric
34Nitrite, standard deviation[NO2]- std dev±Wisshak, MaxSpectrophotometric
35Ammonium[NH4]+µmol/lWisshak, MaxSpectrophotometric
36Ammonium, standard deviation[NH4]+ std dev±Wisshak, MaxSpectrophotometric
37PhosphatePO4µmol/lWisshak, MaxSpectrophotometric
38Phosphate, standard deviationPO4 std dev±Wisshak, MaxSpectrophotometric
39Surface areaSAcm2Wisshak, MaxCalculated using CO2SYSinfested oyster
40Surface area, standard deviationSA std dev±Wisshak, MaxCalculated using CO2SYSinfested oyster
41Calcium carbonate, dissolved massCaCO3 dissmgWisshak, MaxCalculated using CO2SYS
42Calcium carbonate, dissolved, standard deviationCaCO3 diss std dev±Wisshak, MaxCalculated using CO2SYS
43Carbonate system computation flagCSC flagYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
44pHpHYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)total scale
45Carbon dioxideCO2µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
46Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
47Fugacity of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)fCO2water_SST_wetµatmYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
48Bicarbonate ion[HCO3]-µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
49Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
50Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
51Calcite saturation stateOmega CalYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
Size:
1515 data points

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