**Wisshak, Max; Schönberg, Christine HL; Form, Armin; Freiwald, André (2014):** Sponge bioerosion accelerated by ocean acidification across species and latitudes? doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.831657,

*Supplement to:* Wisshak, M et al. (2014): Sponge bioerosion accelerated by ocean acidification across species and latitudes? *Helgoland Marine Research*, **68(2)**, 253-262, doi:10.1007/s10152-014-0385-4

**Always quote above citation when using data!** You can download the citation in several formats below.

Abstract:

In many marine biogeographic realms, bioeroding sponges dominate the internal bioerosion of calcareous substrates such as mollusc beds and coral reef framework. They biochemically dissolve part of the carbonate and liberate so-called sponge chips, a process that is expected to be facilitated and accelerated in a more acidic environment inherent to the present global change. The bioerosion capacity of the demosponge Cliona celata Grant, 1826 in subfossil oyster shells was assessed via alkalinity anomaly technique based on 4 days of experimental exposure to three different levels of carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) at ambient temperature in the cold-temperate waters of Helgoland Island, North Sea. The rate of chemical bioerosion at present-day pCO2 was quantified with 0.08-0.1 kg/m**2/year. Chemical bioerosion was positively correlated with increasing pCO2, with rates more than doubling at carbon dioxide levels predicted for the end of the twenty-first century, clearly confirming that C. celata bioerosion can be expected to be enhanced with progressing ocean acidification (OA). Together with previously published experimental evidence, the present results suggest that OA accelerates sponge bioerosion (1) across latitudes and biogeographic areas, (2) independent of sponge growth form, and (3) for species with or without photosymbionts alike. A general increase in sponge bioerosion with advancing OA can be expected to have a significant impact on global carbonate (re)cycling and may result in widespread negative effects, e.g. on the stability of wild and farmed shellfish populations, as well as calcareous framework builders in tropical and cold-water coral reef ecosystems.

Further details:

**Lavigne, Héloise; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre (2011):**seacarb: seawater carbonate chemistry with R. R package version 2.4. https://cran.r-project.org/package=seacarb

Project(s):

Comment:

In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Lavigne and Gattuso, 2011) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI). The date of carbonate chemistry calculation by seacarb is 2014-04-04.

Parameter(s):

# | Name | Short Name | Unit | Principal Investigator | Method | Comment |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Species | Species | Wisshak, Max | |||

2 | Figure | Fig | Wisshak, Max | |||

3 | Table | Tab | Wisshak, Max | |||

4 | Treatment | Treat | Wisshak, Max | |||

5 | Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air) | pCO2water_SST_wet | µatm | Wisshak, Max | ||

6 | pH | pH | Wisshak, Max | Calculated using CO2SYS | total scale | |

7 | Bioerosion rate | Bioerosion | kg/m^{2}/a | Wisshak, Max | chemical | |

8 | Calcium carbonate, dissolved | CaCO3 diss | % | Wisshak, Max | percentage of baseline | |

9 | Temperature, water | Temp | °C | Wisshak, Max | ||

10 | Temperature, water, standard deviation | Temp std dev | ± | Wisshak, Max | ||

11 | Salinity | Sal | Wisshak, Max | |||

12 | Salinity, standard deviation | Sal std dev | ± | Wisshak, Max | ||

13 | pH | pH | Wisshak, Max | Potentiometric | mean, NBS ccale | |

14 | pH, standard deviation | pH std dev | ± | Wisshak, Max | Potentiometric | NBS ccale |

15 | Carbon, inorganic, dissolved | DIC | µmol/kg | Wisshak, Max | Coulometric titration | |

16 | Carbon, inorganic, dissolved, standard deviation | DIC std dev | ± | Wisshak, Max | Coulometric titration | |

17 | Alkalinity, total | AT | µmol/kg | Wisshak, Max | Potentiometric titration | |

18 | Alkalinity, total, standard deviation | AT std dev | ± | Wisshak, Max | Potentiometric titration | |

19 | Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air) | pCO2water_SST_wet | µatm | Wisshak, Max | Calculated using CO2SYS | |

20 | Partial pressure of carbon dioxide, respiration, standard deviation | pCO2 resp std dev | ± | Wisshak, Max | Calculated using CO2SYS | |

21 | pH | pH | Wisshak, Max | Calculated using CO2SYS | mean total scale | |

22 | pH, standard deviation | pH std dev | ± | Wisshak, Max | Calculated using CO2SYS | total scale |

23 | Bicarbonate ion | [HCO3]- | µmol/kg | Wisshak, Max | Calculated using CO2SYS | |

24 | Bicarbonate ion, standard deviation | [HCO3]- std dev | ± | Wisshak, Max | Calculated using CO2SYS | |

25 | Carbonate ion | [CO3]2- | µmol/kg | Wisshak, Max | Calculated using CO2SYS | |

26 | Carbonate ion, standard deviation | [CO3]2- std dev | ± | Wisshak, Max | Calculated using CO2SYS | |

27 | Aragonite saturation state | Omega Arg | Wisshak, Max | Calculated using CO2SYS | ||

28 | Aragonite saturation state, standard deviation | Omega Arg std dev | ± | Wisshak, Max | Calculated using CO2SYS | |

29 | Calcite saturation state | Omega Cal | Wisshak, Max | Calculated using CO2SYS | ||

30 | Calcite saturation state, standard deviation | Omega Cal std dev | ± | Wisshak, Max | Calculated using CO2SYS | |

31 | Nitrate | NO3 | µmol/l | Wisshak, Max | Spectrophotometric | |

32 | Nitrate, standard deviation | NO3 std dev | ± | Wisshak, Max | Spectrophotometric | |

33 | Nitrite | [NO2]- | µmol/l | Wisshak, Max | Spectrophotometric | |

34 | Nitrite, standard deviation | [NO2]- std dev | ± | Wisshak, Max | Spectrophotometric | |

35 | Ammonium | [NH4]+ | µmol/l | Wisshak, Max | Spectrophotometric | |

36 | Ammonium, standard deviation | [NH4]+ std dev | ± | Wisshak, Max | Spectrophotometric | |

37 | Phosphate | PO4 | µmol/l | Wisshak, Max | Spectrophotometric | |

38 | Phosphate, standard deviation | PO4 std dev | ± | Wisshak, Max | Spectrophotometric | |

39 | Surface area | SA | cm^{2} | Wisshak, Max | Calculated using CO2SYS | infested oyster |

40 | Surface area, standard deviation | SA std dev | ± | Wisshak, Max | Calculated using CO2SYS | infested oyster |

41 | Calcium carbonate, dissolved mass | CaCO3 diss | mg | Wisshak, Max | Calculated using CO2SYS | |

42 | Calcium carbonate, dissolved, standard deviation | CaCO3 diss std dev | ± | Wisshak, Max | Calculated using CO2SYS | |

43 | Carbonate system computation flag | CSC flag | Yang, Yan | Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) | ||

44 | pH | pH | Yang, Yan | Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) | total scale | |

45 | Carbon dioxide | CO2 | µmol/kg | Yang, Yan | Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) | |

46 | Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air) | pCO2water_SST_wet | µatm | Yang, Yan | Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) | |

47 | Fugacity of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air) | fCO2water_SST_wet | µatm | Yang, Yan | Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) | |

48 | Bicarbonate ion | [HCO3]- | µmol/kg | Yang, Yan | Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) | |

49 | Carbonate ion | [CO3]2- | µmol/kg | Yang, Yan | Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) | |

50 | Aragonite saturation state | Omega Arg | Yang, Yan | Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) | ||

51 | Calcite saturation state | Omega Cal | Yang, Yan | Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) |

Size:

1515 data points