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Arnold, Thomas; Mealey, Christopher; Leahey, Hannah; Miller, A Whitman; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Milazzo, Marco; Maers, Kelly (2012): Ocean acidification and the loss of phenolic substances in marine plants. doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.829532, Supplement to: Arnold, T et al. (2012): Ocean Acidification and the Loss of Phenolic Substances in Marine Plants. PLoS ONE, 7(4), e35107, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035107.t004

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Rising atmospheric CO2 often triggers the production of plant phenolics, including many that serve as herbivore deterrents, digestion reducers, antimicrobials, or ultraviolet sunscreens. Such responses are predicted by popular models of plant defense, especially resource availability models which link carbon availability to phenolic biosynthesis. CO2 availability is also increasing in the oceans, where anthropogenic emissions cause ocean acidification, decreasing seawater pH and shifting the carbonate system towards further CO2 enrichment. Such conditions tend to increase seagrass productivity but may also increase rates of grazing on these marine plants. Here we show that high CO2 / low pH conditions of OA decrease, rather than increase, concentrations of phenolic protective substances in seagrasses and eurysaline marine plants. We observed a loss of simple and polymeric phenolics in the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa near a volcanic CO2 vent on the Island of Vulcano, Italy, where pH values decreased from 8.1 to 7.3 and pCO2 concentrations increased ten-fold. We observed similar responses in two estuarine species, Ruppia maritima and Potamogeton perfoliatus, in in situ Free-Ocean-Carbon-Enrichment experiments conducted in tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay, USA. These responses are strikingly different than those exhibited by terrestrial plants. The loss of phenolic substances may explain the higher-than-usual rates of grazing observed near undersea CO2 vents and suggests that ocean acidification may alter coastal carbon fluxes by affecting rates of decomposition, grazing, and disease. Our observations temper recent predictions that seagrasses would necessarily be "winners" in a high CO2 world.
Further details:
Lavigne, Héloise; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre (2011): seacarb: seawater carbonate chemistry with R. R package version 2.4.
Median Latitude: 38.548303 * Median Longitude: -46.008570 * South-bound Latitude: 38.167070 * West-bound Longitude: -76.543940 * North-bound Latitude: 39.058810 * East-bound Longitude: 14.960870
Date/Time Start: 2010-05-01T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2011-07-31T00:00:00
Aeolian_archipelago * Latitude: 38.419030 * Longitude: 14.960870 * Date/Time Start: 2011-05-01T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2011-05-31T00:00:00 * Device: Experiment (EXP)
Severn_River * Latitude: 39.058810 * Longitude: -76.543940 * Date/Time Start: 2011-06-01T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2011-07-31T00:00:00 * Device: Experiment (EXP)
St_Mary_River * Latitude: 38.167070 * Longitude: -76.442640 * Date/Time Start: 2010-05-01T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2010-07-31T00:00:00 * Device: Experiment (EXP)
In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Lavigne and Gattuso, 2011) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI). The date of carbonate chemistry calculation by seacarb is 2014-02-14.
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1Event labelEvent
2SpeciesSpeciesArnold, Thomas
3IdentificationIDArnold, Thomas
4DistanceDistancemArnold, Thomasfrom seep
5DistanceDistancemArnold, Thomasfrom injector
6DescriptionDescriptionArnold, Thomastissue
7ProanthocyanidinsProanthocyanidinsmg/gArnold, Thomas
8Proanthocyanidins, standard errorProanthocyanidins std e±Arnold, Thomas
9Phenolic acids, totalPh acidsmg/gArnold, Thomas
10Phenolic acids, standard errorPh acids std e±Arnold, Thomas
11Gallic acidC6H2(OH)mg/gArnold, Thomas
12Gallic acid, standard errorC6H2(OH) std e±Arnold, Thomas
13Syringaldehyde and 4-hydroxybenzoic acidSyr+4-HBAmg/gArnold, Thomas
14Syringaldehyde and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, standard errorSyr+4-HBA std e±Arnold, Thomas
15VanillinVAmg/gArnold, Thomas
16Vanillin, standard errorVA std e±Arnold, Thomas
17AcetovanilloneC9H10O3mg/gArnold, Thomas
18Acetovanillone, standard errorC9H10O3 std e±Arnold, Thomas
19Coumaric acidC9H8O3mg/gArnold, Thomas
20Coumaric acid, standard errorC9H8O3 std e±Arnold, Thomas
21Ferulic acidC10H10O4mg/gArnold, Thomas
22Ferulic acid, standard errorC10H10O4 std e±Arnold, Thomas
23Phenolics, allPhmg/gArnold, Thomas
24Phenolics, all, standard errorPh std e±Arnold, Thomas
25Phenolics, reactive, totalPh reactivemg/gArnold, Thomas
26Phenolics, reactive, total, standard errorPh reactive std e±Arnold, Thomas
27SalinitySalArnold, Thomas
28Salinity, standard errorSal std e±Arnold, Thomas
29Temperature, waterTemp°CArnold, Thomas
30pHpHArnold, ThomasNBS scale
31pH, standard errorpH std e±Arnold, Thomas
32Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmArnold, Thomas
33Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air), standard errorpCO2water_SST_wet std e±Arnold, Thomas
34Alkalinity, totalATµmol/kgArnold, ThomasPotentiometric titration
35Alkalinity, total, standard errorAT std e±Arnold, ThomasPotentiometric titration
36Carbonate system computation flagCSC flagYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
37pHpHYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)total scale
38Carbon dioxideCO2µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
39Fugacity of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)fCO2water_SST_wetµatmYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
40Bicarbonate ion[HCO3]-µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
41Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
42Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICµmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
43Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
44Calcite saturation stateOmega CalYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
497 data points

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