Data Description

Citation:
Stumpp, M et al. (2012): Seawater carbonate chemistry and resource allocation and extracellular acid-base status in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis during experiments, 2012. doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.779697,
Supplement to: Stumpp, Meike; Trübenbach, Katja; Brennecke, Dennis; Hu, Marian Y; Melzner, Frank (2012): Resource allocation and extracellular acid-base status in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis in response to CO2 induced seawater acidification. Aquatic Toxicology, 110-111, 194-207, doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2011.12.020
Abstract:
Anthropogenic CO2 emission will lead to an increase in seawater pCO2 of up to 80-100 Pa (800-1000 µatm) within this century and to an acidification of the oceans. Green sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) occurring in Kattegat experience seasonal hypercapnic and hypoxic conditions already today. Thus, anthropogenic CO2 emissions will add up to existing values and will lead to even higher pCO2 values >200 Pa (>2000 µatm). To estimate the green sea urchins' potential to acclimate to acidified seawater, we calculated an energy budget and determined the extracellular acid base status of adult S. droebachiensis exposed to moderately (102 to 145 Pa, 1007 to 1431 µatm) and highly (284 to 385 Pa, 2800 to 3800 µatm) elevated seawater pCO2 for 10 and 45 days.
A 45 - day exposure to elevated pCO2 resulted in a shift in energy budgets, leading to reduced somatic and reproductive growth. Metabolic rates were not significantly affected, but ammonium excretion increased in response to elevated pCO2. This led to decreased O:N ratios. These findings suggest that protein metabolism is possibly enhanced under elevated pCO2 in order to support ion homeostasis by increasing net acid extrusion. The perivisceral coelomic fluid acid-base status revealed that S. droebachiensis is able to fully (intermediate pCO2) or partially (high pCO2) compensate extracellular pH (pHe) changes by accumulation of bicarbonate (maximum increases 2.5 mM), albeit at a slower rate than typically observed in other taxa (10 day duration for full pHe compensation). At intermediate pCO2, sea urchins were able to maintain fully compensated pHe for 45 days. Sea urchins from the higher pCO2 treatment could be divided into two groups following medium-term acclimation: one group of experimental animals (29%) contained remnants of food in their digestive system and maintained partially compensated pHe (+2.3 mM HCO3), while the other group (71%) exhibited an empty digestive system and a severe metabolic acidosis (-0.5 pH units, -2.4 mM HCO3). There was no difference in mortality between the three pCO2 treatments.
The results of this study suggest that S. droebachiensis occurring in the Kattegat might be pre-adapted to hypercapnia due to natural variability in pCO2 in its habitat. We show for the first time that some echinoderm species can actively compensate extracellular pH. Seawater pCO2 values of >200 Pa, which will occur in the Kattegat within this century during seasonal hypoxic events, can possibly only be endured for a short time period of a few weeks. Increases in anthropogenic CO2 emissions and leakages from potential sub-seabed CO2 storage (CCS) sites thus impose a threat to the ecologically and economically important species S. droebachiensis.
Project(s):
Comment:
In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Lavigne and Gattuso, 2011) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI).
Parameter(s):
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1Time, incubation *T incubationdayStumpp, Meike *
2Experimental treatment *Exp trtmStumpp, Meike *
3Flow rate *Flow ratel/minStumpp, Meike *
4Flow rate, standard deviation *Flow rate std dev±Stumpp, Meike *
5Replicates *Repl#Stumpp, Meike *T
6Temperature, water *Temp°CStumpp, Meike *
7Temperature, standard deviation *T std dev±Stumpp, Meike *
8Replicates *Repl#Stumpp, Meike *S
9Salinity *SalStumpp, Meike *
10Salinity, standard deviation *Sal std dev±Stumpp, Meike *
11Replicates *Repl#Stumpp, Meike *pH NBS
12pH *pHStumpp, Meike *Calculated using CO2SYS *NBS scale
13pH, standard deviation *pH std dev±Stumpp, Meike *NBS scale
14Replicates *Repl#Stumpp, Meike *pH Total
15pH *pHStumpp, Meike *pH meter (Metrohm, 826 pH mobile) *Total scale
16pH, standard deviation *pH std dev±Stumpp, Meike *Total scale
17Replicates *Repl#Stumpp, Meike *TA
18Alkalinity, total *ATµmol/kgStumpp, Meike *Titration, VINDTA system *
19Alkalinity, total, standard deviation *AT std dev±Stumpp, Meike *
20Replicates *Repl#Stumpp, Meike *TC
21Carbon, inorganic, dissolved *DICµmol/kgStumpp, Meike *see reference(s) *
22Carbon, inorganic, dissolved, standard deviation *DIC std dev±Stumpp, Meike *
23Replicates *Repl#Stumpp, Meike *pCO2
24Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air) *pCO2water_SST_wetµatmStumpp, Meike *Calculated using CO2SYS *
25Carbon dioxide, partial pressure, standard deviation *pCO2 std dev±Stumpp, Meike *
26Replicates *Repl#Stumpp, Meike *Calcite
27Calcite saturation state *Omega CalStumpp, Meike *Calculated using CO2SYS *
28Calcite saturation state, standard deviation *Omega Cal std dev±Stumpp, Meike *
29Replicates *Repl#Stumpp, Meike *Aragonite
30Aragonite saturation state *Omega ArgStumpp, Meike *Calculated using CO2SYS *
31Aragonite saturation state, standard deviation *Omega Arg std dev±Stumpp, Meike *
32Replicates *Repl#Stumpp, Meike *Sample
33Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis *S. droebachiensis%Stumpp, Meike *infections
34Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis *S. droebachiensis%Stumpp, Meike *stressed
35Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis *S. droebachiensis%Stumpp, Meike *healthy
36Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, feeding state *S. droebachiensis feeding state%Stumpp, Meike *Microscopy *full digestive system
37Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, feeding state *S. droebachiensis feeding state%Stumpp, Meike *Microscopy *full hind gut
38Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, feeding state *S. droebachiensis feeding state%Stumpp, Meike *Microscopy *empty digestive system
39Gonad stage, developing *Gon stg dev%Stumpp, Meike *Observed *full
40Gonad stage, developing *Gon stg dev%Stumpp, Meike *Observed *medium
41Gonad stage, developing *Gon stg dev%Stumpp, Meike *Observed *no gonads
42Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, coelomic fluid color *S. droebachiensis coelomic fluid%Stumpp, Meike *Observed *red
43Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, coelomic fluid color *S. droebachiensis coelomic fluid%Stumpp, Meike *Observed *light red
44Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, coelomic fluid color *S. droebachiensis coelomic fluid%Stumpp, Meike *Observed *colorless
45Positioning type/details *Pos typeStumpp, Meike *Observed *tank water surface
46Positioning type/details *Pos typeStumpp, Meike *Observed *tank bottom
47Positioning type/details *Pos typeStumpp, Meike *Observed *tank bottom between algae
48Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, diameter *S. droebachiensis diammmStumpp, Meike *Measured *start
49Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, diameter, standard deviation *S. droebachiensis diam std dev±Stumpp, Meike *start
50Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, diameter *S. droebachiensis diammmStumpp, Meike *Measured *end
51Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, diameter, standard deviation *S. droebachiensis diam std dev±Stumpp, Meike *end
52Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, weight *S. droebachiensis WgStumpp, Meike *Precision scale (LC220s, Sartorius, Göttingen, Germany, 1 mg resolution) *wet mass
53Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, weight, standard deviation *S. droebachiensis W std dev±Stumpp, Meike *wet mass
54Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, test, weight *S. droebachiensis test WgStumpp, Meike *Precision scale (LC220s, Sartorius, Göttingen, Germany, 1 mg resolution) *wet mass
55Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, test, weight, standard deviation *S. droebachiensis test W std dev±Stumpp, Meike *wet mass
56Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, lantern of Aristotle, weight *S. droebachiensis LA WmgStumpp, Meike *Precision scale (LC220s, Sartorius, Göttingen, Germany, 1 mg resolution) *wet mass
57Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, lantern of Aristotle, weight, standard deviation *S. droebachiensis LA W std dev±Stumpp, Meike *wet mass
58Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, gonad, weight *S. droebachiensis gonad WmgStumpp, Meike *Precision scale (LC220s, Sartorius, Göttingen, Germany, 1 mg resolution) *wet mass
59Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, gonad, weight, standard deviation *S. droebachiensis gonad W std dev±Stumpp, Meike *wet mass
60Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, gut, weight *S. droebachiensis gut WmgStumpp, Meike *Precision scale (LC220s, Sartorius, Göttingen, Germany, 1 mg resolution) *wet mass
61Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, gut, weight, standard deviation *S. droebachiensis gut W std dev±Stumpp, Meike *wet mass
62Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, weight *S. droebachiensis WgStumpp, Meike *Precision scale (LC220s, Sartorius, Göttingen, Germany, 1 mg resolution) *dry mass
63Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, weight, standard deviation *S. droebachiensis W std dev±Stumpp, Meike *dry mass
64Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, test, weight *S. droebachiensis test WgStumpp, Meike *Precision scale (LC220s, Sartorius, Göttingen, Germany, 1 mg resolution) *dry mass
65Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, test, weight, standard deviation *S. droebachiensis test W std dev±Stumpp, Meike *dry mass
66Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, lantern of Aristotle, weight *S. droebachiensis LA WmgStumpp, Meike *Precision scale (LC220s, Sartorius, Göttingen, Germany, 1 mg resolution) *dry mass
67Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, lantern of Aristotle, weight, standard deviation *S. droebachiensis LA W std dev±Stumpp, Meike *dry mass
68Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, gonad, weight *S. droebachiensis gonad WmgStumpp, Meike *Precision scale (LC220s, Sartorius, Göttingen, Germany, 1 mg resolution) *dry mass
69Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, gonad, weight, standard deviation *S. droebachiensis gonad W std dev±Stumpp, Meike *dry mass
70Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, gut, weight *S. droebachiensis gut WmgStumpp, Meike *Precision scale (LC220s, Sartorius, Göttingen, Germany, 1 mg resolution) *dry mass
71Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, gut, weight, standard deviation *S. droebachiensis gut W std dev±Stumpp, Meike *dry mass
72Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, weight *S. droebachiensis WgStumpp, Meike *Calculated, see reference(s) *ash-free dry mass
73Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, weight, standard deviation *S. droebachiensis W std dev±Stumpp, Meike *ash-free dry mass
74Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, test, weight *S. droebachiensis test WgStumpp, Meike *Calculated, see reference(s) *ash-free dry mass
75Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, test, weight, standard deviation *S. droebachiensis test W std dev±Stumpp, Meike *ash-free dry mass
76Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, lantern of Aristotle, weight *S. droebachiensis LA WmgStumpp, Meike *Calculated, see reference(s) *ash-free dry mass
77Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, lantern of Aristotle, weight, standard deviation *S. droebachiensis LA W std dev±Stumpp, Meike *ash-free dry mass
78Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, gonad, weight *S. droebachiensis gonad WmgStumpp, Meike *Calculated, see reference(s) *ash-free dry mass
79Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, gonad, weight, standard deviation *S. droebachiensis gonad W std dev±Stumpp, Meike *ash-free dry mass
80Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, gut, weight *S. droebachiensis gut WmgStumpp, Meike *Calculated, see reference(s) *ash-free dry mass
81Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, gut, weight, standard deviation *S. droebachiensis gut W std dev±Stumpp, Meike *ash-free dry mass
82Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, weight *S. droebachiensis WgStumpp, Meike *Precision scale (LC220s, Sartorius, Göttingen, Germany, 1 mg resolution) *ash dry mass
83Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, weight, standard deviation *S. droebachiensis W std dev±Stumpp, Meike *ash dry mass
84Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, test, weight *S. droebachiensis test WgStumpp, Meike *Precision scale (LC220s, Sartorius, Göttingen, Germany, 1 mg resolution) *ash dry mass
85Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, test, weight, standard deviation *S. droebachiensis test W std dev±Stumpp, Meike *ash dry mass
86Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, lantern of Aristotle, weight *S. droebachiensis LA WmgStumpp, Meike *Precision scale (LC220s, Sartorius, Göttingen, Germany, 1 mg resolution) *ash dry mass
87Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, lantern of Aristotle, weight, standard deviation *S. droebachiensis LA W std dev±Stumpp, Meike *ash dry mass
88Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, gonad, weight *S. droebachiensis gonad WmgStumpp, Meike *Precision scale (LC220s, Sartorius, Göttingen, Germany, 1 mg resolution) *ash dry mass
89Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, gonad, weight, standard deviation *S. droebachiensis gonad W std dev±Stumpp, Meike *ash dry mass
90Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, gut, weight *S. droebachiensis gut WmgStumpp, Meike *Precision scale (LC220s, Sartorius, Göttingen, Germany, 1 mg resolution) *ash dry mass
91Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, gut, weight, standard deviation *S. droebachiensis gut W std dev±Stumpp, Meike *ash dry mass
92Carbonate system computation flag *CSC flagNisumaa, Anne-Marin *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
93pH *pHNisumaa, Anne-Marin *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *Total scale
94Carbon dioxide *CO2µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-Marin *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
95Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air) *pCO2water_SST_wetµatmNisumaa, Anne-Marin *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
96Fugacity of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air) *fCO2water_SST_wetµatmNisumaa, Anne-Marin *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
97Bicarbonate ion *[HCO3]-µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-Marin *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
98Carbonate ion *[CO3]2-µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-Marin *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
99Alkalinity, total *ATµmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-Marin *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
100Aragonite saturation state *Omega ArgNisumaa, Anne-Marin *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
101Calcite saturation state *Omega CalNisumaa, Anne-Marin *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
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489 data points

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