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Franke, Andrea; Clemmesen, Catriona (2011): Seawater carbonate chemistry, mortality and hatching rate, size and mass of Clupea harengus during experiments, 2011. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Franke, A; Clemmesen, C (2011): Effect of ocean acidification on early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.). Biogeosciences, 8(12), 3697-3707,

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Due to atmospheric accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in surface seawater increases and the pH decreases. This process known as ocean acidification might have severe effects on marine organisms and ecosystems. The present study addresses the effect of ocean acidification on early developmental stages, the most sensitive stages in life history, of the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.). Eggs of the Atlantic herring were fertilized and incubated in artificially acidified seawater (pCO2 1260, 1859, 2626, 2903, 4635 µatm) and a control treatment (pCO2 480 µatm) until the main hatch of herring larvae occurred. The development of the embryos was monitored daily and newly hatched larvae were sampled to analyze their morphometrics, and their condition by measuring the RNA/DNA ratios. Elevated pCO2 neither affected the embryogenesis nor the hatch rate. Furthermore the results showed no linear relationship betweenpCO2 and total length, dry weight, yolk sac area and otolith area of the newly hatched larvae. For pCO2 and RNA/DNA ratio, however, a significant negative linear relationship was found. The RNA concentration at hatching was reduced at higher pCO2 levels, which could lead to a decreased protein biosynthesis. The results indicate that an increased pCO2 can affect the metabolism of herring embryos negatively. Accordingly, further somatic growth of the larvae could be reduced. This can have consequences for the larval fish, since smaller and slow growing individuals have a lower survival potential due to lower feeding success and increased predation mortality. The regulatory mechanisms necessary to compensate for effects of hypercapnia could therefore lead to lower larval survival. Since the recruitment of fish seems to be determined during the early life stages, future research on the factors influencing these stages are of great importance in fisheries science.
In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Lavigne and Gattuso, 2011) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI).
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1Experimental treatmentExp treatClemmesen, CatrionaStereomicroscopy (Leica)
2SalinitySalClemmesen, Catriona
3Temperature, waterTemp°CClemmesen, CatrionaConductivity meter (WTW, Weilheim, Gemany)
4Temperature, standard deviationT std dev±Clemmesen, Catriona
5ReplicatesRepl#Clemmesen, Catriona
6pHpHClemmesen, CatrionaConductivity meter (WTW, Weilheim, Gemany)Free scale
7pH, standard deviationpH std dev±Clemmesen, Catriona
8Alkalinity, totalATµmol/kgClemmesen, CatrionaTitration potentiometric
9Alkalinity, total, standard deviationAT std dev±Clemmesen, Catriona
10Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICµmol/kgClemmesen, CatrionaCalculated using CO2SYS
11Carbon, inorganic, dissolved, standard deviationDIC std dev±Clemmesen, Catriona
12Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmClemmesen, CatrionaCalculated using CO2SYS
13Carbon dioxide, partial pressure, standard deviationpCO2 std dev±Clemmesen, Catriona
14Carbon dioxideCO2µmol/kgClemmesen, CatrionaCalculated using CO2SYS
15Carbon dioxide, standard deviationCO2 std dev±Clemmesen, Catriona
16Bicarbonate ion[HCO3]-µmol/kgClemmesen, CatrionaCalculated using CO2SYS
17Bicarbonate ion, standard deviation[HCO3]- std dev±Clemmesen, Catriona
18Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgClemmesen, CatrionaCalculated using CO2SYS
19Carbonate ion, standard deviation[CO3]2- std dev±Clemmesen, Catriona
20Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgClemmesen, CatrionaCalculated using CO2SYS
21Aragonite saturation state, standard deviationOmega Arg std dev±Clemmesen, Catriona
22Clupea harengus, eggs, malformedC. harengus eggs%Clemmesen, CatrionaStereomicroscopy (Leica)
23MortalityMortality%Clemmesen, Catriona
24Hatching rateHatching%Clemmesen, Catriona
25Clupea harengus, lengthC. harengus lmmClemmesen, CatrionaMeasured
26Clupea harengus, dry massC. harengus WdµgClemmesen, CatrionaMicrobalance (Sartorius)
27Clupea harengus, yolk sac areaC. harengus yolk sac amm2Clemmesen, CatrionaStereomicroscopy (Leica)
28Clupea harengus, sagitta areaC. harengus sagittaµm2Clemmesen, CatrionaStereomicroscopy (Leica)
29Clupea harengus, lupillus areaC. harengus lupillusµm2Clemmesen, CatrionaStereomicroscopy (Leica)
30Ribonucleic acid/Deoxyribonucleic acid ratioRNA/DNAClemmesen, Catriona
31Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICµmol/kgClemmesen, CatrionaCalculated using CO2SYSfrom means
32Carbonate system computation flagCSC flagNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
33pHpHNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)Total scale
34Carbon dioxideCO2µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
35Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
36Fugacity of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)fCO2water_SST_wetµatmNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
37Bicarbonate ion[HCO3]-µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
38Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
39Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
40Calcite saturation stateOmega CalNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
951 data points

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