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Baumann, Hannes; Talmage, Stephanie C; Gobler, Christopher J (2011): Seawater carbonate chemistry, length and survival of Inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, during experiments, 2012. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Baumann, H et al. (2012): Reduced early life growth and survival in a fish in direct response to increased carbon dioxide. Nature Climate Change, 2, 38-41,

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Absorption of anthropogenic carbon dioxide by the world's oceans is causing mankind's 'other CO2 problem', ocean acidification. Although this process will challenge marine organisms that synthesize calcareous exoskeletons or shells, it is unclear how it will affect internally calcifying organisms, such as marine fish. Adult fish tolerate short-term exposures to CO2 levels that exceed those predicted for the next 300 years (~2,000 ppm), but potential effects of increased CO2 on growth and survival during the early life stages of fish remain poorly understood. Here we show that the exposure of early life stages of a common estuarine fish (Menidia beryllina) to CO2 concentrations expected in the world's oceans later this century caused severely reduced survival and growth rates. When compared with present-day CO2 levels (~400 ppm), exposure of M. beryllina embryos to ~1,000 ppm until one week post-hatch reduced average survival and length by 74% and 18%, respectively. The egg stage was significantly more vulnerable to high CO2-induced mortality than the post-hatch larval stage. These findings challenge the belief that ocean acidification will not affect fish populations, because even small changes in early life survival can generate large fluctuations in adult-fish abundance.
Animalia; Bottles or small containers/Aquaria (<20 L); Chordata; Coast and continental shelf; Growth/Morphology; Laboratory experiment; Menidia beryllina; Mortality/Survival; Nekton; North Atlantic; Pelagos; Single species; Temperate
Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), grant/award no. 211384: European Project on Ocean Acidification
Sixth Framework Programme (FP6), grant/award no. 511106: European network of excellence for Ocean Ecosystems Analysis
In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Lavigne and Gattuso, 2011) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI).
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethod/DeviceComment
1IdentificationIDGobler, Christopher J
2Experimental treatmentExp treatGobler, Christopher J
3SalinitySalGobler, Christopher J
4Salinity, standard deviationSal std dev±Gobler, Christopher J
5Temperature, waterTemp°CGobler, Christopher J
6Temperature, standard deviationT std dev±Gobler, Christopher J
7pHpHGobler, Christopher JpH meter (Orion)NBS scale; H+ ions in µmol/l
8pH, standard deviationpH std dev±Gobler, Christopher J
9pHpHGobler, Christopher JNBS scale; H+ ions in µmol/kg
10Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmGobler, Christopher JCalculated using CO2SYS
11Carbon dioxide, partial pressure, standard deviationpCO2 std dev±Gobler, Christopher J
12Calcite saturation stateOmega CalGobler, Christopher JCalculated using CO2SYS
13Calcite saturation state, standard deviationOmega Cal std dev±Gobler, Christopher J
14Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgGobler, Christopher JCalculated using CO2SYS
15Aragonite saturation state, standard deviationOmega Arg std dev±Gobler, Christopher J
16Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICµmol/lGobler, Christopher JMeasured
17Carbon, inorganic, dissolved, standard deviationDIC std dev±Gobler, Christopher J
18Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICµmol/kgGobler, Christopher JCalculated
19Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/lGobler, Christopher JCalculated using CO2SYS
20Carbonate ion, standard deviation[CO3]2- std dev±Gobler, Christopher J
21Alkalinity, totalATmmol(eq)/lGobler, Christopher JCalculated using CO2SYS
22Alkalinity, total, standard deviationAT std dev±Gobler, Christopher J
23Alkalinity, totalATµmol/kgGobler, Christopher JCalculated using CO2SYSFrom mean pH and DIC
24Menidia beryllina, lengthM. beryllina lmmGobler, Christopher JMeasuredWeighed mean
25Menidia beryllina, length, standard devitationM. beryllina l std dev±Gobler, Christopher J
26Sample IDSample IDGobler, Christopher J
27SurvivalSurvival%Gobler, Christopher J
28Carbonate system computation flagCSC flagNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
29pHpHNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)Total scale; H+ ions in µmol/kg
30Carbon dioxideCO2µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
31Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
32Fugacity of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)fCO2water_SST_wetµatmNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
33Bicarbonate ion[HCO3]-µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
34Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
35Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
36Calcite saturation stateOmega CalNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
1887 data points

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