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Katz, Miriam E; Cramer, Benjamin S; Toggweiler, J Robert; Esmay, Gar; Liu, Chengji; Miller, Kenneth G; Rosenthal, Yair; Wade, Bridget S; Wright, James D (2011): Stable isotope and Mg/Ca ratios of Paleogene benthic foraminifera in the western North Atlantic. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Katz, ME et al. (2011): Impact of Antarctic Circumpolar Current development on late Paleogene ocean structure. Science, 332(6033), 1076-7079,

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Global cooling and the development of continental-scale Antarctic glaciation occurred in the late middle Eocene to early Oligocene (~38 to 28 million years ago), accompanied by deep-ocean reorganization attributed to gradual Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) development. Our benthic foraminiferal stable isotope comparisons show that a large d13C offset developed between mid-depth (~600 meters) and deep (>1000 meters) western North Atlantic waters in the early Oligocene, indicating the development of intermediate-depth d13C and O2 minima closely linked in the modern ocean to northward incursion of Antarctic Intermediate Water. At the same time, the ocean's coldest waters became restricted to south of the ACC, probably forming a bottom-ocean layer, as in the modern ocean. We show that the modern four-layer ocean structure (surface, intermediate, deep, and bottom waters) developed during the early Oligocene as a consequence of the ACC.
Median Latitude: 31.955418 * Median Longitude: -76.977574 * South-bound Latitude: 29.992270 * West-bound Longitude: -77.250000 * North-bound Latitude: 33.133300 * East-bound Longitude: -76.523520
Date/Time Start: 1997-02-06T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1997-02-06T20:30:00
171-1053 * Latitude: 29.992306 * Longitude: -76.523556 * Date/Time: 1997-02-06T00:00:00 * Elevation: -1629.9 m * Penetration: 365.6 m * Recovery: 359.6 m * Location: Carolina Slope, North Atlantic Ocean * Campaign: Leg171B * Basis: Joides Resolution * Device: Composite Core (COMPCORE) * Comment: 40 cores; 365.6 m cored; 0 m drilled; 98.4% recovery
171-1053A * Latitude: 29.992270 * Longitude: -76.523520 * Date/Time: 1997-02-06T20:30:00 * Elevation: -1629.5 m * Penetration: 183.2 m * Recovery: 189.5 m * Location: Carolina Slope, North Atlantic Ocean * Campaign: Leg171B * Basis: Joides Resolution * Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL) * Comment: 20 cores; 183.2 m cored; 0 m drilled; 103.4 % recovery
ASP-5 * Latitude: 33.133300 * Longitude: -77.250000 * Elevation: -250.0 m * Location: North Atlantic * Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL)
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