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Bach, Lennart Thomas; Riebesell, Ulf; Schulz, Kai Georg (2011): Seawater carbonate chemistry, growth rate and PIC and POC production during experiments with Emiliania huxleyi (B92/11), 2011. doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.771288,
Supplement to: Bach, LT et al. (2011): Distinguishing between the effects of ocean acidification and ocean carbonation in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. Limnology and Oceanography, 56(6), 2040-2050, doi:10.4319/lo.2011.56.6.2040

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Abstract:
The coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi was cultured under a broad range of carbonate chemistry conditions to distinguish the effects of individual carbonate system parameters on growth, primary production, and calcification. In the first experiment, alkalinity was kept constant and the fugacity of CO2(fCO2) varied from 2 to 600 Pa (1Pa ~ 10 µatm). In the second experiment, pH was kept constant (pHfree = 8) with fCO2 varying from 4 to 370 Pa. Results of the constant-alkalinity approach revealed physiological optima for growth, calcification, and organic carbon production at fCO2 values of ~20Pa, ~40 Pa, and ~80 Pa, respectively. Comparing this with the constant-pH approach showed that growth and organic carbon production increased similarly from low to intermediate CO2 levels but started to diverge towards higher CO2 levels. In the high CO2 range, growth rates and organic carbon production decreased steadily with declining pH at constant alkalinity while remaining consistently higher at constant pH. This suggests that growth and organic carbon production rates are directly related to CO2 at low (sub-saturating) concentrations, whereas towards higher CO2 levels they are adversely affected by the associated decrease in pH. A pH dependence at high fCO2 is also indicated for calcification rates, while the key carbonate system parameter determining calcification at low fCO2 remains unclear. These results imply that key metabolic processes in coccolithophores have their optima at different carbonate chemistry conditions and are influenced by different parameters of the carbonate system at both sides of the optimum.
Comment:
In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Lavigne and Gattuso, 2011) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI).
Parameter(s):
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1Experimental treatmentExp trtmBach, Lennart Thomas
2SalinitySalBach, Lennart Thomas
3Temperature, waterTemp°CBach, Lennart Thomas
4Radiation, photosynthetically activePARµE/m2/sBach, Lennart Thomas
5Light:Dark cycleL:Dhh:hhBach, Lennart ThomasMeasured
6Fugacity of carbon dioxide in seawater, standard deviationfCO2 std dev±Bach, Lennart ThomasCalculated using CO2SYS
7Fugacity of carbon dioxide in seawater, standard deviationfCO2 std dev±Bach, Lennart ThomasCalculated using CO2SYS
8Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICµmol/kgBach, Lennart ThomasPhotometry
9Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICµmol/kgBach, Lennart ThomasPhotometry
10Alkalinity, totalATµmol/kgBach, Lennart ThomasPotentiometric open-cell titration
11Alkalinity, totalATµmol/kgBach, Lennart ThomasPotentiometric open-cell titration
12pHpHBach, Lennart ThomasTitration potentiometricT0; Free scale
13pHpHBach, Lennart ThomasTitration potentiometricTfin; Free scale
14Growth rateµ#/dayBach, Lennart ThomasCalculated
15Emiliania huxleyi, diameterE. huxleyi diamµmBach, Lennart ThomasScanning electron microscope (SEM)
16Production of particulate organic carbon per cellPOC prodpg/#/dayBach, Lennart ThomasCalculated
17Particulate inorganic carbon production per cellPIC prodpg/#/dayBach, Lennart ThomasCalculated
18Chlorophyll a, production, per cellChl a prodpg/#/dayBach, Lennart ThomasPigments, Turner fluorometer
19Particulate inorganic carbon/particulate organic carbon ratioPIC/POC ratioBach, Lennart Thomas
20Carbonate system computation flagCSC flagNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
21Carbon dioxideCO2µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)T0
22Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)T0
23Fugacity of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)fCO2water_SST_wetµatmNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)T0
24Bicarbonate ion[HCO3]-µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)T0
25Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)T0
26Alkalinity, totalATµmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)T0
27Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)T0
28Calcite saturation stateOmega CalNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)T0
29pHpHNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)T0; Total scale
30Carbon dioxideCO2µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)Tfin
31Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)Tfin
32Fugacity of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)fCO2water_SST_wetµatmNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)Tfin
33Bicarbonate ion[HCO3]-µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)Tfin
34Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)Tfin
35Alkalinity, totalATµmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)Tfin
36Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)Tfin
37Calcite saturation stateOmega CalNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)Tfin
38pHpHNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)Tfin; Total scale
Size:
1396 data points

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