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Wöhrmann, Andreas P A (2011): Tab. 1: Summary of available data about antifreeze peptides of polar fish. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Wöhrmann, APA (1997): Gefrierschutzsubstanzen bei Fischen der Polarmeere und ihre Bedeutung für Evolution und Ökologie. Polarforschung, 65(1), 27-40, hdl:10013/epic.29739.d001

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In the blood of Antarctic notothenioid and Arctic gadiform fishes, freezing is inhibited by antifreeze glycopeptide macromolecules (AFGP). These antifreeze molecules are built up of repeating tripeptide units (Ala-Ala-Thr)n, to which the disaccharide fl-D-galactosyl-(1->3)a-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine is linked through the hydroxyl oxygen of the threonyl residue. Species of Liparididae, Zoarcidae, Cottidae and Pleuronectidae synthezise only unglycosylated antifreeze peptides (AFP). It could be demonstrated for the Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarcticum that the synthesis of AFGP is not constitutive but rather regulated by water temperature. Moreover a novel glycopeptid was isolated and characterised from P. antarcticum, the Pleuragramma-antifreeze glycopeptid (PAGP). The level of antifreeze concentration was dependent on the ambient water temperature, the depth of distribution, the life cycle and the evolution of the species. Surprisingly, detectable AFGPs in perciform fish of the Antarctic and gadiform fish of the Arctic and Antarctic could illustrate, that before the continental drift occurred a precursor glycopeptid existed, and that the existence of freezing resistance in some species reflects the past glaciation. The wide distribution and high heterogeneity of AFPs point to the assumption that these peptides are results of cold shock stress responses.
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethod/DeviceComment
1Area/localityAreasee references
2FamilyFamilysee references
3SpeciesSpeciessee references
4TypeTypesee referencesAF-Typ
5PercentagePerc%see referencesFRG
6Thermal hysteresisTH°Csee references
7Thermal hysteresisTH°Csee referencesSerum
8Area/localityAreasee referencesFangregion
9Temperature, water, minimumTemp min°Csee references# means "about"
10Temperature, water, maximumTemp max°Csee references
11OccurrenceOccursee referencesVerbreitung
12Mode of lifeLivingsee referencesLebensweise
13Reference/sourceReferencesee references
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