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Sexton, Philip F; Norris, Richard D; Wilson, Paul A; Pälike, Heiko; Westerhold, Thomas; Röhl, Ursula; Bolton, Clara T; Gibbs, Samantha J (2011): Eocene sedimentary calcium carbonate contents and stable isotope composition of benthic foraminifera [dataset publication series]. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Sexton, PF et al. (2011): Eocene global warming events driven by ventilation of oceanic dissolved organic carbon. Nature, 471, 349-352,

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'Hyperthermals' are intervals of rapid, pronounced global warming known from six episodes within the Palaeocene and Eocene epochs (~65-34 million years (Myr) ago) (Zachos et al., 2005, doi:10.1126/science.1109004; 2008, doi:10.1038/nature06588; Roehl et al., 2007, doi:10.1029/2007GC001784; Thomas et al., 2000; Cramer et al., 2003, doi:10.1029/2003PA000909; Lourens et al., 2005, doi:10.1038/nature03814; Petrizzo, 2005, doi:10.2973/; Sexton et al., 2006, doi:10.1029/2005PA001253; Westerhold et al., 2007, doi:10.1029/2006PA001322; Edgar et al., 2007, doi:10.1038/nature06053; Nicolo et al., 2007, doi:10.1130/G23648A.1; Quillévéré et al., 2008, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2007.10.040; Stap et al., 2010, doi:10.1130/G30777.1). The most extreme hyperthermal was the 170 thousand year (kyr) interval (Roehl et al., 2007) of 5-7 °C global warming (Zachos et al., 2008) during the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 56 Myr ago). The PETM is widely attributed to massive release of greenhouse gases from buried sedimentary carbon reservoirs (Zachos et al., 2005; 2008; Lourenbs et al., 2005; Nicolo et al., 2007; Dickens et al., 1995, doi:10.1029/95PA02087; Dickens, 2000; 2003, doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(03)00325-X; Panchuk et al., 2008, doi:10.1130/G24474A.1) and other, comparatively modest, hyperthermals have also been linked to the release of sedimentary carbon (Zachos et al., 2008, Lourens et al., 2005; Nicolo et al., 2007; Dickens, 2003; Panchuk et al., 2003). Here we show, using new 2.4-Myr-long Eocene deep ocean records, that the comparatively modest hyperthermals are much more numerous than previously documented, paced by the eccentricity of Earth's orbit and have shorter durations (~40 kyr) and more rapid recovery phases than the PETM. These findings point to the operation of fundamentally different forcing and feedback mechanisms than for the PETM, involving redistribution of carbon among Earth's readily exchangeable surface reservoirs rather than carbon exhumation from, and subsequent burial back into, the sedimentary reservoir. Specifically, we interpret our records to indicate repeated, large-scale releases of dissolved organic carbon (at least 1,600 gigatonnes) from the ocean by ventilation (strengthened oxidation) of the ocean interior. The rapid recovery of the carbon cycle following each Eocene hyperthermal strongly suggests that carbon was resequestered by the ocean, rather than the much slower process of silicate rock weathering proposed for the PETM (Zachos et al., 2005; 2003). Our findings suggest that these pronounced climate warming events were driven not by repeated releases of carbon from buried sedimentary sources (Zachos et al., 2008, Lourens et al., 2005; Nicolo et al., 2007; Dickens, 2003; Panchuk et al., 2003) but, rather, by patterns of surficial carbon redistribution familiar from younger intervals of Earth history.
Median Latitude: 5.748046 * Median Longitude: 12.626058 * South-bound Latitude: -28.098083 * West-bound Longitude: -54.733050 * North-bound Latitude: 32.223600 * East-bound Longitude: 158.259367
Date/Time Start: 2001-09-23T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2003-04-26T00:00:00
198-1210 * Latitude: 32.223600 * Longitude: 158.259367 * Date/Time Start: 2001-09-23T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2001-09-27T00:00:00 * Elevation: -2573.4 m * Penetration: 619.4 m * Recovery: 625.7 m * Location: North Pacific Ocean * Campaign: Leg198 * Basis: Joides Resolution * Method/Device: Composite Core (COMPCORE) * Comment: 69 cores; 606.9 m cored; 12.5 m drilled; 103.1% recovery
207-1258 * Latitude: 9.433333 * Longitude: -54.733050 * Date/Time Start: 2003-01-22T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2003-02-01T00:00:00 * Elevation: -3192.2 m * Penetration: 1393.4 m * Recovery: 882.7 m * Location: South Atlantic Ocean * Campaign: Leg207 * Basis: Joides Resolution * Method/Device: Composite Core (COMPCORE) * Comment: 141 cores; 1116.6 m cored; 276.8 m drilled; 79 % recovery
208-1267 * Latitude: -28.098083 * Longitude: 1.710967 * Date/Time Start: 2003-04-21T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2003-04-26T00:00:00 * Elevation: -4354.7 m * Penetration: 641.1 m * Recovery: 636.6 m * Location: South Atlantic Ocean * Campaign: Leg208 * Basis: Joides Resolution * Method/Device: Composite Core (COMPCORE) * Comment: 69 cores; 641.1 m cored; 0 m drilled; 99.3 % recovery
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