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Connell, Sean D; Russell, Bayden D (2010): Seawater carbonate chemistry and coverage and dry weight of Ecklonia radiata during experiments, 2010. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.758189, Supplement to: Connell, SD; Russell, BD (2010): The direct effects of increasing CO2 and temperature on non-calcifying organisms: increasing the potential for phase shifts in kelp forests. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 277(1686), 1409-1415, https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2009.2069

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Abstract:
Predictions about the ecological consequences of oceanic uptake of CO2 have been preoccupied with the effects of ocean acidification on calcifying organisms, particularly those critical to the formation of habitats (e.g. coral reefs) or their maintenance (e.g. grazing echinoderms). This focus overlooks the direct effects of CO2 on non-calcareous taxa, particularly those that play critical roles in ecosystem shifts. We used two experiments to investigate whether increased CO2 could exacerbate kelp loss by facilitating non-calcareous algae that, we hypothesized, (i) inhibit the recovery of kelp forests on an urbanized coast, and (ii) form more extensive covers and greater biomass under moderate future CO2 and associated temperature increases. Our experimental removal of turfs from a phase-shifted system (i.e. kelp- to turf-dominated) revealed that the number of kelp recruits increased, thereby indicating that turfs can inhibit kelp recruitment. Future CO2 and temperature interacted synergistically to have a positive effect on the abundance of algal turfs, whereby they had twice the biomass and occupied over four times more available space than under current conditions. We suggest that the current preoccupation with the negative effects of ocean acidification on marine calcifiers overlooks potentially profound effects of increasing CO2 and temperature on non-calcifying organisms.
Comment:
In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Lavigne and Gattuso, 2011) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI).
Parameter(s):
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1Experimental treatmentExp treatConnell, Sean DMeasured
2SalinitySalConnell, Sean DMeasured
3Temperature, waterTemp°CConnell, Sean DMeasured
4Alkalinity, totalATµmol/kgConnell, Sean DMeasured
5Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICµmol/kgConnell, Sean DCalculated using CO2SYS
6pHpHConnell, Sean DNBS scale
7Ecklonia radiata, coverageE. radiata%Connell, Sean DMeasured
8Ecklonia radiata, coverage, standard errorE. radiata std e±Connell, Sean D
9Ecklonia radiata, dry massE. radiata dmmgConnell, Sean DMeasured
10Ecklonia radiata, dry mass, standard errorE. radiata w std e±Connell, Sean D
11Effective quantum yieldYConnell, Sean DCalculated
12Effective quantum yield, standard errorY std e±Connell, Sean D
13Carbonate system computation flagCSC flagNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
14pHpHNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)Total scale
15Carbon dioxideCO2µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
16Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
17Fugacity of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)fCO2water_SST_wetµatmNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
18Bicarbonate ion[HCO3]-µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
19Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
20Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
21Calcite saturation stateOmega CalNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
Size:
84 data points

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