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García-Herrera, Ricardo; Können, Gunther P; Wheeler, Dennis A; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; Jones, Philip D; Koek, Frits B (2010): Meteorological observations during UNKNOWN-09 cruise from Batavia to Nieuwendiep started at 1845-06-23. Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut, De Bilt, PANGAEA,, In: Jones, Philip D; Wheeler, Dennis A; Können, Gunther P; Koek, Frits B; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; García-Herrera, Ricardo (2007): Climatological observations from ship logbooks between 1750 and 1854 (release 2.1). PANGAEA,

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Related to:
García-Herrera, Ricardo; Können, Gunther P; Wheeler, Dennis A; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; Jones, Philip D; Koek, Frits B (2005): CLIWOC: A Climatological Database for the World's Oceans 1750–1854 (and 10 more publications about CLIWOC results in the same volume). Climatic Change, 73(1-2), 1-12ff,
Median Latitude: -4.550270 * Median Longitude: 11.952523 * South-bound Latitude: -36.470000 * West-bound Longitude: -39.470000 * North-bound Latitude: 51.250000 * East-bound Longitude: 104.330000
Date/Time Start: 1845-06-23T05:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1845-10-13T00:00:00
Unknown-09_18450623_H_REIS_12_P273-295 * Latitude Start: -6.100000 * Longitude Start: 106.860000 * Latitude End: 53.000000 * Longitude End: 4.490000 * Date/Time Start: 1845-06-23T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1845-10-13T00:00:00 * Campaign: Cliwoc_cruise * Device: Underway cruise track measurements (CT) * Comment: Voyage: Batavia - Nieuwendiep
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
4Wind directiondddegWind direction (from which the wind is blowing) in whole degrees from: 1-360; 361 = calm, 362 = variable. It is not clear from many logbook entries whether the wind direction has been corrected for the magnetic variation (or declination). To avoid any misunderstanding, all winds from reports that included a valid position in the period 1750-1854 were corrected. All other wind directions are given without being corrected.
5Wind speedffm/scalculated from the descriptive terms of wind force given in the observations
6Pressure, atmosphericPPPPhPaNo temperature correction was applied. The following factors have been used for the conversion to hPa: 2.54 cm in an inch; 13.596 specific gravity of mercury; 980.65 cm/s gravity at 45° latitude
7Temperature, airTTT°C
8--1 If position is considered to be coastal (in port or near coastal disturbances)
9WatchWatchName of the period of 4 hours which is known as a watch or duty on board ships
10GlassesGlassesNumber of glasses within a watch; one watch equals 8 glasses
11CourseCourseCourse of the ship during the past 24 hours
12DistanceDistancearbitrary unitsDistance travelled during the previous 24 hours
13CommentCommentOther remarks, that were not possible to put in the other remark fields
14DeclinationDecldegIt is generally accepted by the CLIWOC team that the wind directions, reported by the ships officers, were relative to the magnetic North direction. Navigators were well aware of the difference between the true and magnetic north direction, but the compasses (we assumed that the bearing-compasses were mostly used for determining the wind direction) were not always adjusted. Therefore the wind direction has to be corrected. The magnetic declination (or variation, as it is known on board ships) is given for the whole CLIWOC period (1750-1850) for every 5x5 degree square. The number was added to the wind direction to get the true wind direction.
15Wind scale referenceWind scale ref#Name of, or reference to the wind scale that has been used
16Sensor readingReadingarbitrary unitsReading of the (outside) air thermometer
17Sensor readingReadingarbitrary unitsReading of the air pressure
18Wind direction descriptionWind dir descrAll reported wind directions on this day. The wind direction is the direction that points to where the wind comes from.
19Wind force descriptionWind force descrAll reported wind forces on this day
20State of the sea descriptionState sea descr
21GustsGusts1 If wind gusts are reported
22Precipitation/RainRain1 If rain was reported
23FogFog1 If fog was reported
24Snow typeSnow1 If snow was reported
25ThunderThunder1 If thunder and or lightning was reported
26HailHail1 If hail was reported
27Sea iceSea ice1 If sea-ice or icebergs were reported
28IdentificationIDCLIWOC 2.1 line number
2443 data points

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