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García-Herrera, Ricardo; Können, Gunther P; Wheeler, Dennis A; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; Jones, Philip D; Koek, Frits B (2010): Meteorological observations during TERNATE cruise from Manilla to Batavia started at 1852-12-24. Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut, De Bilt, PANGAEA,, In: Jones, Philip D; Wheeler, Dennis A; Können, Gunther P; Koek, Frits B; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; García-Herrera, Ricardo (2007): Climatological observations from ship logbooks between 1750 and 1854 (release 2.1). PANGAEA,

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Related to:
García-Herrera, Ricardo; Können, Gunther P; Wheeler, Dennis A; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; Jones, Philip D; Koek, Frits B (2005): CLIWOC: A Climatological Database for the World's Oceans 1750–1854 (and 10 more publications about CLIWOC results in the same volume). Climatic Change, 73(1-2), 1-12ff,
Median Latitude: 6.551667 * Median Longitude: 109.482143 * South-bound Latitude: -10.080000 * West-bound Longitude: 97.980000 * North-bound Latitude: 20.830000 * East-bound Longitude: 119.650000
Date/Time Start: 1852-12-24T04:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1853-08-01T05:00:00
Ternate_18521224_C_REIS_4_P67-76 * Latitude Start: 14.650000 * Longitude Start: 119.620000 * Latitude End: -6.100000 * Longitude End: 106.860000 * Date/Time Start: 1852-12-24T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1853-08-01T00:00:00 * Campaign: Cliwoc_cruise * Device: Underway cruise track measurements (CT) * Comment: Ship: Ternate (Bark), Voyage: Manilla - Batavia, 1st Observer: F. Cars (Kapitein), Other ship information: 520 TON. GEBOUWD IN 1831 TE KINDERDIJK. VERBOUWD IN 1841 TE KINDERDIJK. 1854 IN VEILING TE ROTTERDAM. IN 1855 GESTRAND EN VERBRIJZELD BIJ SAVANNAH IN DIKKE MIST. DE EQUIPAGE ZOOMEDE EEN KLEIN GEDEELtE DER INVENTARIS IS GEBORGEN.
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
4Wind directiondddegWind direction (from which the wind is blowing) in whole degrees from: 1-360; 361 = calm, 362 = variable. It is not clear from many logbook entries whether the wind direction has been corrected for the magnetic variation (or declination). To avoid any misunderstanding, all winds from reports that included a valid position in the period 1750-1854 were corrected. All other wind directions are given without being corrected.
5Wind speedffm/scalculated from the descriptive terms of wind force given in the observations
6WatchWatchName of the period of 4 hours which is known as a watch or duty on board ships
7GlassesGlassesNumber of glasses within a watch; one watch equals 8 glasses
8DeclinationDecldegIt is generally accepted by the CLIWOC team that the wind directions, reported by the ships officers, were relative to the magnetic North direction. Navigators were well aware of the difference between the true and magnetic north direction, but the compasses (we assumed that the bearing-compasses were mostly used for determining the wind direction) were not always adjusted. Therefore the wind direction has to be corrected. The magnetic declination (or variation, as it is known on board ships) is given for the whole CLIWOC period (1750-1850) for every 5x5 degree square. The number was added to the wind direction to get the true wind direction.
9Wind scale referenceWind scale ref#Name of, or reference to the wind scale that has been used
10Wind direction descriptionWind dir descrAll reported wind directions on this day. The wind direction is the direction that points to where the wind comes from.
11Wind force descriptionWind force descrAll reported wind forces on this day
12Present weatherwwWeather description
13Precipitation descriptionPrecip descr
14State of the sea descriptionState sea descr
15Cloud typeCloud type
17GustsGusts1 If wind gusts are reported
18Precipitation/RainRain1 If rain was reported
19FogFog1 If fog was reported
20Snow typeSnow1 If snow was reported
21ThunderThunder1 If thunder and or lightning was reported
22HailHail1 If hail was reported
23Sea iceSea ice1 If sea-ice or icebergs were reported
24IdentificationIDCLIWOC 2.1 line number
724 data points

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