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García-Herrera, Ricardo; Können, Gunther P; Wheeler, Dennis A; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; Jones, Philip D; Koek, Frits B (2010): Meteorological observations during TERNATE cruise from Rotterdam to Batavia started at 1842-07-01. Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut, De Bilt, PANGAEA,, In: Jones, Philip D; Wheeler, Dennis A; Können, Gunther P; Koek, Frits B; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; García-Herrera, Ricardo (2007): Climatological observations from ship logbooks between 1750 and 1854 (release 2.1). PANGAEA,

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Related to:
García-Herrera, Ricardo; Können, Gunther P; Wheeler, Dennis A; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; Jones, Philip D; Koek, Frits B (2005): CLIWOC: A Climatological Database for the World's Oceans 1750-1854 (and 10 more publications about CLIWOC results in the same volume). Climatic Change, 73(1-2), 1-12ff,
Median Latitude: -8.303738 * Median Longitude: 18.187383 * South-bound Latitude: -41.570000 * West-bound Longitude: -32.530000 * North-bound Latitude: 50.550000 * East-bound Longitude: 106.860000
Date/Time Start: 1842-07-01T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1842-11-09T05:00:00
Ternate_18420701_B_REIS_4_P60-80 * Latitude Start: 51.900000 * Longitude Start: 3.930000 * Latitude End: -6.100000 * Longitude End: 106.860000 * Date/Time Start: 1842-07-01T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1842-11-09T00:00:00 * Campaign: Cliwoc_cruise * Device: Underway cruise track measurements (CT) * Comment: Ship: Ternate (Bark), Voyage: Rotterdam - Batavia, 1st Observer: S. Van de Koppel (Kapitein)H.V. Rijckevorsel, Rotterdam, Other ship information: 520 TON. GEBOUWD IN 1831 TE KINDERDIJK. VERBOUWD IN 1841 TE KINDERDIJK. 1854 IN VEILING TE ROTTERDAM. IN 1855 GESTRAND EN VERBRIJZELD BIJ SAVANNAH IN DIKKE MIST. DE EQUIPAGE ZOOMEDE EEN KLEIN GEDEELtE DER INVENTARIS IS GEBORGEN.
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
4Wind directiondddegWind direction (from which the wind is blowing) in whole degrees from: 1-360; 361 = calm, 362 = variable. It is not clear from many logbook entries whether the wind direction has been corrected for the magnetic variation (or declination). To avoid any misunderstanding, all winds from reports that included a valid position in the period 1750-1854 were corrected. All other wind directions are given without being corrected.
5Wind speedffm/scalculated from the descriptive terms of wind force given in the observations
6Pressure, atmosphericPPPPhPaNo temperature correction was applied. The following factors have been used for the conversion to hPa: 2.54 cm in an inch; 13.596 specific gravity of mercury; 980.65 cm/s gravity at 45° latitude
7Temperature, airTTT°C
8LandmarkLandmarkName of first landmark
9BearingBearingBearing of the first landmark
10Distance to landmarkDistancearbitrary unitsDistance to the first landmark
11LandmarkLandmarkName of second landmark
12BearingBearingBearing of the second landmark
13LandmarkLandmarkName of third landmark
14BearingBearingBearing of the third landmark
15--1 If position is considered to be coastal (in port or near coastal disturbances)
16WatchWatchName of the period of 4 hours which is known as a watch or duty on board ships
17GlassesGlassesNumber of glasses within a watch; one watch equals 8 glasses
18CommentCommentAny remark, found in the logbook on this particular day, about any biological item
19CommentCommentOther remarks, that were not possible to put in the other remark fields
20DeclinationDecldegIt is generally accepted by the CLIWOC team that the wind directions, reported by the ships officers, were relative to the magnetic North direction. Navigators were well aware of the difference between the true and magnetic north direction, but the compasses (we assumed that the bearing-compasses were mostly used for determining the wind direction) were not always adjusted. Therefore the wind direction has to be corrected. The magnetic declination (or variation, as it is known on board ships) is given for the whole CLIWOC period (1750-1850) for every 5x5 degree square. The number was added to the wind direction to get the true wind direction.
21Wind scale referenceWind scale ref#Name of, or reference to the wind scale that has been used
22Sensor readingReadingarbitrary unitsReading of the (outside) air thermometer
23Sensor readingReadingarbitrary unitsReading of the air pressure
24Wind direction descriptionWind dir descrAll reported wind directions on this day. The wind direction is the direction that points to where the wind comes from.
25Current direction descriptionCur dir descrDirection of the current. This direction points to where the current is flowing towards to.
26Wind force descriptionWind force descrAll reported wind forces on this day
27Present weatherwwWeather description
28Precipitation descriptionPrecip descr
29State of the sea descriptionState sea descr
30Cloud typeCloud type
32GustsGusts1 If wind gusts are reported
33Precipitation/RainRain1 If rain was reported
34FogFog1 If fog was reported
35Snow typeSnow1 If snow was reported
36ThunderThunder1 If thunder and or lightning was reported
37HailHail1 If hail was reported
38Sea iceSea ice1 If sea-ice or icebergs were reported
40IdentificationIDCLIWOC 2.1 line number
2639 data points

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