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García-Herrera, Ricardo; Können, Gunther P; Wheeler, Dennis A; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; Jones, Philip D; Koek, Frits B (2010): Meteorological observations during Santa Maria Magdalena cruise from Cádiz to Cádiz started at 1779-06-22. Archivo Museo Naval Madrid, Spain, PANGAEA,, In: Jones, Philip D; Wheeler, Dennis A; Können, Gunther P; Koek, Frits B; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; García-Herrera, Ricardo (2007): Climatological observations from ship logbooks between 1750 and 1854 (release 2.1). PANGAEA,

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Related to:
García-Herrera, Ricardo; Können, Gunther P; Wheeler, Dennis A; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; Jones, Philip D; Koek, Frits B (2005): CLIWOC: A Climatological Database for the World's Oceans 1750–1854 (and 10 more publications about CLIWOC results in the same volume). Climatic Change, 73(1-2), 1-12ff,
Median Latitude: 36.865455 * Median Longitude: -9.796818 * South-bound Latitude: 35.800000 * West-bound Longitude: -13.250000 * North-bound Latitude: 39.470000 * East-bound Longitude: -7.270000
Date/Time Start: 1779-06-22T12:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1779-07-14T13:00:00
Santa_Maria_Magdalena_17790622_MS_627 * Latitude Start: 36.070000 * Longitude Start: -6.730000 * Latitude End: 36.070000 * Longitude End: -6.730000 * Date/Time Start: 1779-06-22T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1779-07-14T00:00:00 * Campaign: Cliwoc_cruise * Method/Device: Underway cruise track measurements (CT) * Comment: Ship: Santa Maria Magdalena (Fragata), Voyage: Cádiz - Cádiz, 1st Observer: Pedro de Leiva (Capitan)
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethod/DeviceComment
4Wind directiondddegWind direction (from which the wind is blowing) in whole degrees from: 1-360; 361 = calm, 362 = variable. It is not clear from many logbook entries whether the wind direction has been corrected for the magnetic variation (or declination). To avoid any misunderstanding, all winds from reports that included a valid position in the period 1750-1854 were corrected. All other wind directions are given without being corrected.
5Wind speedffm/scalculated from the descriptive terms of wind force given in the observations
6LandmarkLandmarkName of first landmark
7BearingBearingBearing of the first landmark
8Distance to landmarkDistancearbitrary unitsDistance to the first landmark
9LandmarkLandmarkName of second landmark
10BearingBearingBearing of the second landmark
11Distance to landmarkDistancearbitrary unitsDistance to the second landmark
12CourseCourseCourse of the ship during the past 24 hours
13DistanceDistancearbitrary unitsDistance travelled during the previous 24 hours
14CommentCommentOther remarks, that were not possible to put in the other remark fields
15Comment 2 (continued)Comm 2Other remarks
16Comment 3 (continued)Comm 3Other remarks
17DeclinationDecldegIt is generally accepted by the CLIWOC team that the wind directions, reported by the ships officers, were relative to the magnetic North direction. Navigators were well aware of the difference between the true and magnetic north direction, but the compasses (we assumed that the bearing-compasses were mostly used for determining the wind direction) were not always adjusted. Therefore the wind direction has to be corrected. The magnetic declination (or variation, as it is known on board ships) is given for the whole CLIWOC period (1750-1850) for every 5x5 degree square. The number was added to the wind direction to get the true wind direction.
18Compass, established errorCompass, established e
19Wind direction descriptionWind dir descrAll reported wind directions on this day. The wind direction is the direction that points to where the wind comes from.
20Current direction descriptionCur dir descrDirection of the current. This direction points to where the current is flowing towards to.
21Current speed descriptionV descr
22Wind force descriptionWind force descrAll reported wind forces on this day
23Present weatherwwWeather description
24Precipitation descriptionPrecip descr
25State of the sea descriptionState sea descr
26GustsGusts1 If wind gusts are reported
27Precipitation/RainRain1 If rain was reported
28FogFog1 If fog was reported
29Snow typeSnow1 If snow was reported
30ThunderThunder1 If thunder and or lightning was reported
31HailHail1 If hail was reported
32Sea iceSea ice1 If sea-ice or icebergs were reported
33IdentificationIDCLIWOC 2.1 line number
434 data points

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