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García-Herrera, Ricardo; Können, Gunther P; Wheeler, Dennis A; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; Jones, Philip D; Koek, Frits B (2010): Meteorological observations during Prins Veldmaarschalk cruise from Batavia to the Netherlands started at 1852-10-14. Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut, De Bilt, PANGAEA,, In: Jones, Philip D; Wheeler, Dennis A; Können, Gunther P; Koek, Frits B; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; García-Herrera, Ricardo (2007): Climatological observations from ship logbooks between 1750 and 1854 (release 2.1). PANGAEA,

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Related to:
García-Herrera, Ricardo; Können, Gunther P; Wheeler, Dennis A; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; Jones, Philip D; Koek, Frits B (2005): CLIWOC: A Climatological Database for the World's Oceans 1750–1854 (and 10 more publications about CLIWOC results in the same volume). Climatic Change, 73(1-2), 1-12ff,
Median Latitude: -8.563163 * Median Longitude: 18.983571 * South-bound Latitude: -35.050000 * West-bound Longitude: -34.880000 * North-bound Latitude: 43.880000 * East-bound Longitude: 105.530000
Date/Time Start: 1852-10-14T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1853-01-21T13:00:00
Prins_Veldmaarschalk_18521014_15+_REIS_56_P14-23 * Latitude Start: -6.100000 * Longitude Start: 106.860000 * Latitude End: 53.000000 * Longitude End: 4.490000 * Date/Time Start: 1852-10-14T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1853-01-21T00:00:00 * Campaign: Cliwoc_cruise * Method/Device: Underway cruise track measurements (CT) * Comment: Ship: Prins Veldmaarschalk, Voyage: Batavia - Nederland
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethod/DeviceComment
4Wind directiondddegWind direction (from which the wind is blowing) in whole degrees from: 1-360; 361 = calm, 362 = variable. It is not clear from many logbook entries whether the wind direction has been corrected for the magnetic variation (or declination). To avoid any misunderstanding, all winds from reports that included a valid position in the period 1750-1854 were corrected. All other wind directions are given without being corrected.
5Wind speedffm/scalculated from the descriptive terms of wind force given in the observations
6Pressure, atmosphericPPPPhPaNo temperature correction was applied. The following factors have been used for the conversion to hPa: 2.54 cm in an inch; 13.596 specific gravity of mercury; 980.65 cm/s gravity at 45° latitude
7Temperature, airTTT°C
8LandmarkLandmarkName of first landmark
9BearingBearingBearing of the first landmark
10Distance to landmarkDistancearbitrary unitsDistance to the first landmark
11--1 If position is considered to be coastal (in port or near coastal disturbances)
12WatchWatchName of the period of 4 hours which is known as a watch or duty on board ships
13GlassesGlassesNumber of glasses within a watch; one watch equals 8 glasses
14CommentCommentAny remark, found in the logbook on this particular day, about any biological item
15CommentCommentOther remarks, that were not possible to put in the other remark fields
16DeclinationDecldegIt is generally accepted by the CLIWOC team that the wind directions, reported by the ships officers, were relative to the magnetic North direction. Navigators were well aware of the difference between the true and magnetic north direction, but the compasses (we assumed that the bearing-compasses were mostly used for determining the wind direction) were not always adjusted. Therefore the wind direction has to be corrected. The magnetic declination (or variation, as it is known on board ships) is given for the whole CLIWOC period (1750-1850) for every 5x5 degree square. The number was added to the wind direction to get the true wind direction.
17Wind scale referenceWind scale ref#Name of, or reference to the wind scale that has been used
18Compass, established errorCompass, established e
19Compass, applied correctionCompass, applied correction
20Sensor readingReadingarbitrary unitsReading of the (outside) air thermometer
21Sensor readingReadingarbitrary unitsReading of the air pressure
22Wind direction descriptionWind dir descrAll reported wind directions on this day. The wind direction is the direction that points to where the wind comes from.
23Current direction descriptionCur dir descrDirection of the current. This direction points to where the current is flowing towards to.
24Current speed descriptionV descr
25Wind force descriptionWind force descrAll reported wind forces on this day
26Present weatherwwWeather description
27Precipitation descriptionPrecip descr
28State of the sea descriptionState sea descr
29Cloud typeCloud type
31GustsGusts1 If wind gusts are reported
32Precipitation/RainRain1 If rain was reported
33FogFog1 If fog was reported
34Snow typeSnow1 If snow was reported
35ThunderThunder1 If thunder and or lightning was reported
36HailHail1 If hail was reported
37Sea iceSea ice1 If sea-ice or icebergs were reported
39IdentificationIDCLIWOC 2.1 line number
2177 data points

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