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García-Herrera, Ricardo; Können, Gunther P; Wheeler, Dennis A; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; Jones, Philip D; Koek, Frits B (2010): Meteorological observations during HELDIN cruise from Batavia to St. Helena started at 1836-02-06. Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut, De Bilt, PANGAEA,, In: Jones, Philip D; Wheeler, Dennis A; Können, Gunther P; Koek, Frits B; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; García-Herrera, Ricardo (2007): Climatological observations from ship logbooks between 1750 and 1854 (release 2.1). PANGAEA,

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Related to:
García-Herrera, Ricardo; Können, Gunther P; Wheeler, Dennis A; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; Jones, Philip D; Koek, Frits B (2005): CLIWOC: A Climatological Database for the World's Oceans 1750-1854 (and 10 more publications about CLIWOC results in the same volume). Climatic Change, 73(1-2), 1-12ff,
Median Latitude: -22.007000 * Median Longitude: 55.756333 * South-bound Latitude: -36.880000 * West-bound Longitude: -5.250000 * North-bound Latitude: -6.150000 * East-bound Longitude: 105.480000
Date/Time Start: 1836-02-06T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1836-04-06T12:00:00
Heldin_18360206_T_REIS_14B_P123-127 * Latitude Start: -6.100000 * Longitude Start: 106.860000 * Latitude End: -15.890000 * Longitude End: -5.750000 * Date/Time Start: 1836-02-06T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1836-04-06T00:00:00 * Campaign: Cliwoc_cruise * Device: Underway cruise track measurements (CT) * Comment: Ship: Heldin (Korvet), Voyage: Batavia - St Helena, 1st Observer: Huijs (Luitenant Ter Zee), Company: MAR
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
4Wind directiondddegWind direction (from which the wind is blowing) in whole degrees from: 1-360; 361 = calm, 362 = variable. It is not clear from many logbook entries whether the wind direction has been corrected for the magnetic variation (or declination). To avoid any misunderstanding, all winds from reports that included a valid position in the period 1750-1854 were corrected. All other wind directions are given without being corrected.
5Wind speedffm/scalculated from the descriptive terms of wind force given in the observations
6Pressure, atmosphericPPPPhPaNo temperature correction was applied. The following factors have been used for the conversion to hPa: 2.54 cm in an inch; 13.596 specific gravity of mercury; 980.65 cm/s gravity at 45° latitude
7Temperature, airTTT°C
8--1 If position is considered to be coastal (in port or near coastal disturbances)
9DeclinationDecldegIt is generally accepted by the CLIWOC team that the wind directions, reported by the ships officers, were relative to the magnetic North direction. Navigators were well aware of the difference between the true and magnetic north direction, but the compasses (we assumed that the bearing-compasses were mostly used for determining the wind direction) were not always adjusted. Therefore the wind direction has to be corrected. The magnetic declination (or variation, as it is known on board ships) is given for the whole CLIWOC period (1750-1850) for every 5x5 degree square. The number was added to the wind direction to get the true wind direction.
10Wind scale referenceWind scale ref#Name of, or reference to the wind scale that has been used
11Sensor readingReadingarbitrary unitsReading of the (outside) air thermometer
12Sensor readingReadingarbitrary unitsReading of the air pressure
13Wind direction descriptionWind dir descrAll reported wind directions on this day. The wind direction is the direction that points to where the wind comes from.
14Current direction descriptionCur dir descrDirection of the current. This direction points to where the current is flowing towards to.
15Wind force descriptionWind force descrAll reported wind forces on this day
16Precipitation descriptionPrecip descr
17State of the sea descriptionState sea descr
18Cloud typeCloud type
20GustsGusts1 If wind gusts are reported
21Precipitation/RainRain1 If rain was reported
22FogFog1 If fog was reported
23Snow typeSnow1 If snow was reported
24ThunderThunder1 If thunder and or lightning was reported
25HailHail1 If hail was reported
26Sea iceSea ice1 If sea-ice or icebergs were reported
27IdentificationIDCLIWOC 2.1 line number
1178 data points

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