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García-Herrera, Ricardo; Können, Gunther P; Wheeler, Dennis A; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; Jones, Philip D; Koek, Frits B (2010): Meteorological observations during El Pizarro cruise from Montevideo to La Coruña started at 1795-03-17. Archivo General de Indias, Seville, Spain, PANGAEA,, In: Jones, Philip D; Wheeler, Dennis A; Können, Gunther P; Koek, Frits B; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; García-Herrera, Ricardo (2007): Climatological observations from ship logbooks between 1750 and 1854 (release 2.1). PANGAEA,

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Related to:
García-Herrera, Ricardo; Können, Gunther P; Wheeler, Dennis A; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; Jones, Philip D; Koek, Frits B (2005): CLIWOC: A Climatological Database for the World's Oceans 1750–1854 (and 10 more publications about CLIWOC results in the same volume). Climatic Change, 73(1-2), 1-12ff,
Median Latitude: 4.335545 * Median Longitude: -32.316634 * South-bound Latitude: -36.880000 * West-bound Longitude: -56.340000 * North-bound Latitude: 43.470000 * East-bound Longitude: -10.000000
Date/Time Start: 1795-03-17T16:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1795-06-26T12:00:00
El_Pizarro_17950317_CORREOS_193A_R2 * Latitude Start: -35.970000 * Longitude Start: -55.650000 * Latitude End: 43.360000 * Longitude End: -8.360000 * Date/Time Start: 1795-03-17T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1795-06-26T00:00:00 * Campaign: Cliwoc_cruise * Device: Underway cruise track measurements (CT) * Comment: Ship: El Pizarro (Fragata Correo), Voyage: Montevideo - La Coruña, 1st Observer: Luis de Videgaray (Capitan)
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
4Wind directiondddegWind direction (from which the wind is blowing) in whole degrees from: 1-360; 361 = calm, 362 = variable. It is not clear from many logbook entries whether the wind direction has been corrected for the magnetic variation (or declination). To avoid any misunderstanding, all winds from reports that included a valid position in the period 1750-1854 were corrected. All other wind directions are given without being corrected.
5Wind speedffm/scalculated from the descriptive terms of wind force given in the observations
6--1 If position is considered to be coastal (in port or near coastal disturbances)
7DistanceDistancearbitrary unitsDistance travelled during the previous 24 hours
8DeclinationDecldegIt is generally accepted by the CLIWOC team that the wind directions, reported by the ships officers, were relative to the magnetic North direction. Navigators were well aware of the difference between the true and magnetic north direction, but the compasses (we assumed that the bearing-compasses were mostly used for determining the wind direction) were not always adjusted. Therefore the wind direction has to be corrected. The magnetic declination (or variation, as it is known on board ships) is given for the whole CLIWOC period (1750-1850) for every 5x5 degree square. The number was added to the wind direction to get the true wind direction.
9Wind direction descriptionWind dir descrAll reported wind directions on this day. The wind direction is the direction that points to where the wind comes from.
10Wind force descriptionWind force descrAll reported wind forces on this day
11Present weatherwwWeather description
12Precipitation descriptionPrecip descr
13State of the sea descriptionState sea descr
14GustsGusts1 If wind gusts are reported
15Precipitation/RainRain1 If rain was reported
16FogFog1 If fog was reported
17Snow typeSnow1 If snow was reported
18ThunderThunder1 If thunder and or lightning was reported
19HailHail1 If hail was reported
20Sea iceSea ice1 If sea-ice or icebergs were reported
22IdentificationIDCLIWOC 2.1 line number
1352 data points

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