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García-Herrera, Ricardo; Können, Gunther P; Wheeler, Dennis A; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; Jones, Philip D; Koek, Frits B (2010): Meteorological observations during BELLONA cruise from Batavia to Nieuwediep started at 1842-03-07. Nationaal Archief of the Netherlands, Den Haag, Netherland, PANGAEA,, In: Jones, Philip D; Wheeler, Dennis A; Können, Gunther P; Koek, Frits B; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; García-Herrera, Ricardo (2007): Climatological observations from ship logbooks between 1750 and 1854 (release 2.1). PANGAEA,

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Related to:
García-Herrera, Ricardo; Können, Gunther P; Wheeler, Dennis A; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; Jones, Philip D; Koek, Frits B (2005): CLIWOC: A Climatological Database for the World's Oceans 1750–1854 (and 10 more publications about CLIWOC results in the same volume). Climatic Change, 73(1-2), 1-12ff,
Median Latitude: -0.784000 * Median Longitude: 15.064640 * South-bound Latitude: -35.430000 * West-bound Longitude: -43.000000 * North-bound Latitude: 52.350000 * East-bound Longitude: 105.120000
Date/Time Start: 1842-03-17T05:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1842-08-06T00:00:00
Bellona_18420307_MAR_D23905_492 * Latitude Start: -6.100000 * Longitude Start: 106.860000 * Latitude End: 53.000000 * Longitude End: 4.490000 * Date/Time Start: 1842-03-17T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1842-08-06T00:00:00 * Campaign: Cliwoc_cruise * Method/Device: Underway cruise track measurements (CT) * Comment: Ship: Bellona (Fregat), Voyage: Batavia - Nieuwediep, 1st Observer: W.A. Geesteranus (Ktz), Company: MAR, Other ship information: BEMAND MET 300 KOPPEN
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethod/DeviceComment
4Wind directiondddegWind direction (from which the wind is blowing) in whole degrees from: 1-360; 361 = calm, 362 = variable. It is not clear from many logbook entries whether the wind direction has been corrected for the magnetic variation (or declination). To avoid any misunderstanding, all winds from reports that included a valid position in the period 1750-1854 were corrected. All other wind directions are given without being corrected.
5Wind speedffm/scalculated from the descriptive terms of wind force given in the observations
6Pressure, atmosphericPPPPhPaNo temperature correction was applied. The following factors have been used for the conversion to hPa: 2.54 cm in an inch; 13.596 specific gravity of mercury; 980.65 cm/s gravity at 45° latitude
7Temperature, airTTT°C
8Image number/nameImageIdentification Number of the original image
9LandmarkLandmarkName of first landmark
10BearingBearingBearing of the first landmark
11Distance to landmarkDistancearbitrary unitsDistance to the first landmark
12LandmarkLandmarkName of second landmark
13BearingBearingBearing of the second landmark
14Distance to landmarkDistancearbitrary unitsDistance to the second landmark
15LandmarkLandmarkName of third landmark
16BearingBearingBearing of the third landmark
17Distance to landmarkDistancearbitrary unitsDistance to the third landmark
18--1 If position is considered to be coastal (in port or near coastal disturbances)
19WatchWatchName of the period of 4 hours which is known as a watch or duty on board ships
20GlassesGlassesNumber of glasses within a watch; one watch equals 8 glasses
21CommentCommentLife on board
22CourseCourseCourse of the ship during the past 24 hours
23DistanceDistancearbitrary unitsDistance travelled during the previous 24 hours
24CommentCommentOther remarks, that were not possible to put in the other remark fields
25DeclinationDecldegIt is generally accepted by the CLIWOC team that the wind directions, reported by the ships officers, were relative to the magnetic North direction. Navigators were well aware of the difference between the true and magnetic north direction, but the compasses (we assumed that the bearing-compasses were mostly used for determining the wind direction) were not always adjusted. Therefore the wind direction has to be corrected. The magnetic declination (or variation, as it is known on board ships) is given for the whole CLIWOC period (1750-1850) for every 5x5 degree square. The number was added to the wind direction to get the true wind direction.
26Sensor readingReadingarbitrary unitsReading of the (outside) air thermometer
27Sensor readingReadingarbitrary unitsReading of the air pressure
28Wind direction descriptionWind dir descrAll reported wind directions on this day. The wind direction is the direction that points to where the wind comes from.
29Current direction descriptionCur dir descrDirection of the current. This direction points to where the current is flowing towards to.
30Current speed descriptionV descr
31Wind force descriptionWind force descrAll reported wind forces on this day
32Present weatherwwWeather description
33Precipitation descriptionPrecip descr
34State of the sea descriptionState sea descr
35Cloud typeCloud type
36Cloud direction descriptionCloud dir descr
38GustsGusts1 If wind gusts are reported
39Precipitation/RainRain1 If rain was reported
40FogFog1 If fog was reported
41Snow typeSnow1 If snow was reported
42ThunderThunder1 If thunder and or lightning was reported
43HailHail1 If hail was reported
44Sea iceSea ice1 If sea-ice or icebergs were reported
45IdentificationIDCLIWOC 2.1 line number
3276 data points

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