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García-Herrera, Ricardo; Können, Gunther P; Wheeler, Dennis A; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; Jones, Philip D; Koek, Frits B (2010): Meteorological observations during AMSTERDAM cruise from New York to Curaçao started at 1853-09-19. Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut, De Bilt, PANGAEA,, In: Jones, Philip D; Wheeler, Dennis A; Können, Gunther P; Koek, Frits B; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; García-Herrera, Ricardo (2007): Climatological observations from ship logbooks between 1750 and 1854 (release 2.1). PANGAEA,

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Related to:
García-Herrera, Ricardo; Können, Gunther P; Wheeler, Dennis A; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; Jones, Philip D; Koek, Frits B (2005): CLIWOC: A Climatological Database for the World's Oceans 1750–1854 (and 10 more publications about CLIWOC results in the same volume). Climatic Change, 73(1-2), 1-12ff,
Median Latitude: 27.853333 * Median Longitude: -59.401250 * South-bound Latitude: 10.750000 * West-bound Longitude: -70.420000 * North-bound Latitude: 39.400000 * East-bound Longitude: -53.580000
Date/Time Start: 1853-09-19T05:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1853-10-12T04:00:00
Amsterdam_18530919_E_REIS_7_P67-86 * Latitude Start: 40.670000 * Longitude Start: -74.040000 * Latitude End: 12.370000 * Longitude End: -68.570000 * Date/Time Start: 1853-09-19T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1853-10-12T00:00:00 * Campaign: Cliwoc_cruise * Device: Underway cruise track measurements (CT) * Comment: Ship: Amsterdam (Stoomschip), Voyage: New York - Curacao, 1st Observer: J. Spanjaard (Kltz)
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
4Wind directiondddegWind direction (from which the wind is blowing) in whole degrees from: 1-360; 361 = calm, 362 = variable. It is not clear from many logbook entries whether the wind direction has been corrected for the magnetic variation (or declination). To avoid any misunderstanding, all winds from reports that included a valid position in the period 1750-1854 were corrected. All other wind directions are given without being corrected.
5Wind speedffm/scalculated from the descriptive terms of wind force given in the observations
6Pressure, atmosphericPPPPhPaNo temperature correction was applied. The following factors have been used for the conversion to hPa: 2.54 cm in an inch; 13.596 specific gravity of mercury; 980.65 cm/s gravity at 45° latitude
7Temperature, airTTT°C
8CommentCommentAny remark, found in the logbook on this particular day, about any biological item
9DeclinationDecldegIt is generally accepted by the CLIWOC team that the wind directions, reported by the ships officers, were relative to the magnetic North direction. Navigators were well aware of the difference between the true and magnetic north direction, but the compasses (we assumed that the bearing-compasses were mostly used for determining the wind direction) were not always adjusted. Therefore the wind direction has to be corrected. The magnetic declination (or variation, as it is known on board ships) is given for the whole CLIWOC period (1750-1850) for every 5x5 degree square. The number was added to the wind direction to get the true wind direction.
10Wind scale referenceWind scale ref#Name of, or reference to the wind scale that has been used
11Sensor readingReadingarbitrary unitsReading of the (outside) air thermometer
12Sensor readingReadingarbitrary unitsReading of the air pressure
13Wind direction descriptionWind dir descrAll reported wind directions on this day. The wind direction is the direction that points to where the wind comes from.
14Wind force descriptionWind force descrAll reported wind forces on this day
15Cloud typeCloud type
16Cloud direction descriptionCloud dir descr
17Cloud coverCloud cov%
18GustsGusts1 If wind gusts are reported
19Precipitation/RainRain1 If rain was reported
20FogFog1 If fog was reported
21Snow typeSnow1 If snow was reported
22ThunderThunder1 If thunder and or lightning was reported
23HailHail1 If hail was reported
24Sea iceSea ice1 If sea-ice or icebergs were reported
25IdentificationIDCLIWOC 2.1 line number
495 data points

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