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García-Herrera, Ricardo; Können, Gunther P; Wheeler, Dennis A; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; Jones, Philip D; Koek, Frits B (2010): Meteorological observations during AJAX cruise from Nederland to Fort Axim started at 1816-08-22. Nationaal Archief of the Netherlands, Den Haag, Netherland, PANGAEA,, In: Jones, Philip D; Wheeler, Dennis A; Können, Gunther P; Koek, Frits B; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; García-Herrera, Ricardo (2007): Climatological observations from ship logbooks between 1750 and 1854 (release 2.1). PANGAEA,

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Related to:
García-Herrera, Ricardo; Können, Gunther P; Wheeler, Dennis A; Prieto, Maria del Rosario; Jones, Philip D; Koek, Frits B (2005): CLIWOC: A Climatological Database for the World's Oceans 1750–1854 (and 10 more publications about CLIWOC results in the same volume). Climatic Change, 73(1-2), 1-12ff,
Median Latitude: 15.670702 * Median Longitude: -14.459298 * South-bound Latitude: 4.100000 * West-bound Longitude: -20.400000 * North-bound Latitude: 49.820000 * East-bound Longitude: -3.720000
Date/Time Start: 1816-08-22T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1816-11-22T12:00:00
Ajax_18160822_MAR_D23905_31 * Latitude Start: 53.000000 * Longitude Start: 4.490000 * Latitude End: 4.950000 * Longitude End: -3.720000 * Date/Time Start: 1816-08-22T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1816-11-22T00:00:00 * Campaign: Cliwoc_cruise * Method/Device: Underway cruise track measurements (CT) * Comment: Ship: Ajax (Korvet), Voyage: Nederland - Fort Axim, 1st Observer: Zuilen Van Nijeveld (Kapitein), Company: MAR
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethod/DeviceComment
4Wind directiondddegWind direction (from which the wind is blowing) in whole degrees from: 1-360; 361 = calm, 362 = variable. It is not clear from many logbook entries whether the wind direction has been corrected for the magnetic variation (or declination). To avoid any misunderstanding, all winds from reports that included a valid position in the period 1750-1854 were corrected. All other wind directions are given without being corrected.
5Wind speedffm/scalculated from the descriptive terms of wind force given in the observations
6Temperature, airTTT°C
7Image number/nameImageIdentification Number of the original image
8LandmarkLandmarkName of first landmark
9BearingBearingBearing of the first landmark
10Distance to landmarkDistancearbitrary unitsDistance to the first landmark
11LandmarkLandmarkName of second landmark
12BearingBearingBearing of the second landmark
13Distance to landmarkDistancearbitrary unitsDistance to the second landmark
14LandmarkLandmarkName of third landmark
15BearingBearingBearing of the third landmark
16Distance to landmarkDistancearbitrary unitsDistance to the third landmark
17--1 If position is considered to be coastal (in port or near coastal disturbances)
18WatchWatchName of the period of 4 hours which is known as a watch or duty on board ships
19GlassesGlassesNumber of glasses within a watch; one watch equals 8 glasses
20CommentCommentLife on board
21CourseCourseCourse of the ship during the past 24 hours
22DistanceDistancearbitrary unitsDistance travelled during the previous 24 hours
23CommentCommentAny remark, found in the logbook on this particular day, about any biological item
24CommentCommentOther remarks, that were not possible to put in the other remark fields
25DeclinationDecldegIt is generally accepted by the CLIWOC team that the wind directions, reported by the ships officers, were relative to the magnetic North direction. Navigators were well aware of the difference between the true and magnetic north direction, but the compasses (we assumed that the bearing-compasses were mostly used for determining the wind direction) were not always adjusted. Therefore the wind direction has to be corrected. The magnetic declination (or variation, as it is known on board ships) is given for the whole CLIWOC period (1750-1850) for every 5x5 degree square. The number was added to the wind direction to get the true wind direction.
26Sensor readingReadingarbitrary unitsReading of the (outside) air thermometer
27Wind direction descriptionWind dir descrAll reported wind directions on this day. The wind direction is the direction that points to where the wind comes from.
28Current direction descriptionCur dir descrDirection of the current. This direction points to where the current is flowing towards to.
29Current speed descriptionV descr
30Wind force descriptionWind force descrAll reported wind forces on this day
31Present weatherwwWeather description
32Precipitation descriptionPrecip descr
33State of the sea descriptionState sea descr
34Cloud typeCloud type
35GustsGusts1 If wind gusts are reported
36Precipitation/RainRain1 If rain was reported
37FogFog1 If fog was reported
38Snow typeSnow1 If snow was reported
39ThunderThunder1 If thunder and or lightning was reported
40HailHail1 If hail was reported
41Sea iceSea ice1 If sea-ice or icebergs were reported
43IdentificationIDCLIWOC 2.1 line number
1323 data points

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