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Goldhammer, Tobias; Brüchert, Volker; Ferdelman, Timothy G; Zabel, Matthias (2010): (Figure 1 and 2) Phosphorus pools in the investigated sediments quantified by SEDEX sequential extraction and distribution of recovered 33P spike between sedimentary P pools after incubation. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Goldhammer, T et al. (2010): Microbial sequestration of phosphorus in anoxic upwelling sediments. Nature Geoscience, 3(8), 557-561,

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Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for life. In the ocean, phosphorus burial regulates marine primary production**1, 2. Phosphorus is removed from the ocean by sedimentation of organic matter, and the subsequent conversion of organic phosphorus to phosphate minerals such as apatite, and ultimately phosphorite deposits**3, 4. Bacteria are thought to mediate these processes**5, but the mechanism of sequestration has remained unclear. Here, we present results from laboratory incubations in which we labelled organic-rich sediments from the Benguela upwelling system, Namibia, with a 33P-radiotracer, and tracked the fate of the phosphorus. We show that under both anoxic and oxic conditions, large sulphide-oxidizing bacteria accumulate 33P in their cells, and catalyse the nearly instantaneous conversion of phosphate to apatite. Apatite formation was greatest under anoxic conditions. Nutrient analyses of Namibian upwelling waters and sediments suggest that the rate of phosphate-to-apatite conversion beneath anoxic bottom waters exceeds the rate of phosphorus release during organic matter mineralization in the upper sediment layers. We suggest that bacterial apatite formation is a significant phosphorus sink under anoxic bottom-water conditions. Expanding oxygen minimum zones are projected in simulations of future climate change**6, potentially increasing sequestration of marine phosphate, and restricting marine productivity.
Median Latitude: -20.003915 * Median Longitude: 0.626665 * South-bound Latitude: -21.007830 * West-bound Longitude: -12.000000 * North-bound Latitude: -19.000000 * East-bound Longitude: 13.253330
Date/Time Start: 2008-05-01T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2008-05-27T00:00:00
Minimum DEPTH, sediment/rock: 0.005 m * Maximum DEPTH, sediment/rock: 0.055 m
M76/2_223 * Latitude: -19.000000 * Longitude: -12.000000 * Date/Time: 2008-05-01T00:00:00 * Elevation: -119.0 m * Campaign: M76/2 * Basis: Meteor (1986) * Method/Device: MultiCorer (MUC)
M76/2_231 * Latitude: -21.007830 * Longitude: 13.253330 * Date/Time: 2008-05-27T00:00:00 * Elevation: -123.0 m * Location: Namibia upwelling, Southeast Atlantic * Campaign: M76/2 * Basis: Meteor (1986) * Method/Device: MultiCorer (MUC)
Surficial sediment was sampled during research cruise M76-2 with RV Meteor with a multi-core sampler. Sediment slurries were prepared with bottom water from 1 cm slices of the topmost 6 cm, spiked with carrier-free 33Pi and incubated under anoxic and oxic conditions for 48 h at 4°C, together with killed controls. After incubation, samples were fixed with zinc chloride, immediately frozen and transported to the laboratory for sequential extraction of sedimentary Pi pools. For each of the sequential fractions, we recorded Pi concentrations by photometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and calculated the size of individual P pools. The redistribution of 33Pi radiolabel among the different P fractions was quantified by liquid scintillation counting of the extractant solutions, after recalculation of the initial activity assuming exponential radioactive decay.
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethod/DeviceComment
1Event labelEvent
2Latitude of eventLatitude
3Longitude of eventLongitude
4Elevation of eventElevationm
5DEPTH, sediment/rockDepthmGeocode
6CommentCommentGoldhammer, Tobias
7Phosphorus, inorganicP inorgnmol/cm3Goldhammer, TobiasSequential leaching techniqueDissolved
8Phosphorus, inorganicP inorgnmol/cm3Goldhammer, TobiasSequential leaching techniqueExchangeable
9Phosphorus, inorganicP inorgnmol/cm3Goldhammer, TobiasSequential leaching techniqueFe-bound
10Phosphorus, inorganicP inorgnmol/cm3Goldhammer, TobiasSequential leaching techniqueAuthigenic
11Phosphorus, inorganicP inorgnmol/cm3Goldhammer, TobiasSequential leaching techniqueDetrital
12Phosphorus, inorganicP inorgnmol/cm3Goldhammer, TobiasSequential leaching techniqueOrganic
13Phosphorus, inorganic, activityP inorg actBqGoldhammer, TobiasLiquid scintillationDissolved
14Phosphorus, inorganic, activityP inorg actBqGoldhammer, TobiasLiquid scintillationExchangeable
15Phosphorus, inorganic, activityP inorg actBqGoldhammer, TobiasLiquid scintillationFe-bound
16Phosphorus, inorganic, activityP inorg actBqGoldhammer, TobiasLiquid scintillationAuthigenic
17Phosphorus, inorganic, activityP inorg actBqGoldhammer, TobiasLiquid scintillationDetrital
18Phosphorus, inorganic, activityP inorg actBqGoldhammer, TobiasLiquid scintillationOrganic
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