Hiscott, Richard N; Aksu, Ali E; Nielsen, Ole Bjorslev (1989): Mineralogy of ODP Site 105-645. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.745167, Supplement to: Hiscott, RN et al. (1989): Provenance and dispersal patterns, Pliocene-Pleistocene section at Site 645, Baffin Bay. In: Srivastava, SP; Arthur, M; Clement, B; et al. (eds.), Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 105, 31-52, https://doi.org/10.2973/odp.proc.sr.105.117.1989
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Cores from the upper 70 meters below seafloor (mbsf) (upper Pleistocene) at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 645 in Baffin Bay show dramatic meter-scale changes in color and mineralogy. Below this interval, mineralogical changes are more gradual to the top of the Miocene at about 550 mbsf. The Pliocene-Pleistocene section can be divided into five facies: Facies 1 - massive, poorly sorted, gravel-bearing muds; Facies 2 - gray silty clays and silty muds; Facies 3 - laminated detricarbonate silty muds; Facies 4 - silty sand and sandy silt; and Facies 5 - poorly sorted muddy sands and silty muds. Facies 4 and 5 are restricted to the Pliocene section below depths of about 275 mbsf. The mineralogical/color cycles in the upper 70 mbsf are the result of alternations between Facies 2 and three lithotypes of Facies 1: lithotype A - tan-colored, carbonate-rich, gravel-bearing mud; lithotype B - weak, red-colored, gravel-bearing mud rich in sedimentary rock fragments; and lithotype C - gray, gravel-bearing mud. A fourth lithotype, D, is restricted to depths of 168-275 mbsf and is dark gray, carbonate-poor, gravel-bearing mud. We believe that all lithotypes of Facies 1 and the sand and gravel fractions of Facies 2 and 3 were deposited by ice rafting. Depositional processes for Facies 4 and 5 probably include ice rafting and bottom- and turbidity-current transport.
Data from petrographic analyses of light and heavy sand-sized grains and X-ray analyses of silt- and clay-size fractions suggest that tan-colored sediments (lithotype A of Facies 1; Facies 3) were derived mainly from Paleozoic carbonates of Ellesmere, Devon, and northern Baffin islands. Weak red sediments (lithotype B) contain significant red sedimentary clasts, reworked quartzarenite grains and clasts, and rounded colorless garnets, all derived from Proterozoic sequences of the Borden and Thule basins, and from minor Mesozoic red beds. Other sediments in the upper 335 mbsf at Site 645 contain detritus from a heterogeneous mixture of sources, including Precambrian shield terranes around Baffin Bay.
Sediments from 335 to 550 mbsf (Facies 5) are rich in friable sedimentary clasts and detrital micas and contain glauconite and, in a few samples, reworked diatoms. These components suggest derivation from poorly consolidated Mesozoic-Tertiary sediments in coastal outcrops and beneath the modern shelves of northeastern Baffin Island and western Greenland.
For the upper Pleistocene section (about 0-100 mbsf), marked mineralogical cyclicity is attributed to fluctuating glacial margins, calving rates, and iceberg melting rates, particularly around the northern end of Baffin Bay. Tan-colored, carbonate-rich units were derived at times of maximum advance of glaciers on Ellesmere and Devon islands, during relatively warm intervals induced by incursion of warm Atlantic surface water into the bay. At the beginning of these warmer episodes, most icebergs were contributed by glaciers near sea level around the Arctic channels, which resulted in deposition of weak red, ice-rafted units rich in Proterozoic sedimentary clasts.
Latitude: 70.457550 * Longitude: -64.654800
Date/Time Start: 1985-09-03T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1985-09-28T00:00:00
105-645 * Latitude: 70.457550 * Longitude: -64.654800 * Date/Time Start: 1985-09-03T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1985-09-28T00:00:00 * Elevation: -2018.1 m * Penetration: 1980 m * Recovery: 850.8 m * Location: Baffin Bay * Campaign: Leg105 * Basis: Joides Resolution * Device: Composite Core (COMPCORE) * Comment: 139 cores; 1276.8 m cored; 0 m drilled; 66.6% recovery