Steinfeldt, R et al. (2009): Chemical and physical oceanography on 131 CTD casts from METEOR cruise M59/2. doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.735167, Supplement to:Steinfeldt, Reiner; Rhein, Monika; Bullister, John L; Tanhua, Toste (2009): Inventory changes in anthropogenic carbon from 1997-2003 in the Atlantic Ocean between 20°S and 65°N. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 23, GB3010, doi:10.1029/2008GB003311
The oceans absorb and store a significant portion of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, but large uncertainties remain in the quantification of this sink. An improved assessment of the present and future oceanic carbon sink is therefore necessary to provide recommendations for long-term global carbon cycle and climate policies. The formation of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) is a unique fast track for transporting anthropogenic CO2 into the ocean's interior, making the deep waters rich in anthropogenic carbon. Thus the Atlantic is presently estimated to hold 38% of the oceanic anthropogenic CO2 inventory, although its volume makes up only 25% of the world ocean. Here we analyze the inventory change of anthropogenic CO2 in the Atlantic between 1997 and 2003 and its relationship to NADW formation. For the whole region between 20°S and 65°N the inventory amounts to 32.5 ± 9.5 Petagram carbon (Pg C) in 1997 and increases up to 36.0 ± 10.5 Pg C in 2003. This result is quite similar to earlier studies. Moreover, the overall increase of anthropogenic carbon is in close agreement with the expected change due to rising atmospheric CO2 levels of 1.69% a?1. On the other hand, when considering the subpolar region only, the results demonstrate that the recent weakening in the formation of Labrador Sea Water, a component of NADW, has already led to a decrease of the anthropogenic carbon inventory in this water mass. As a consequence, the overall inventory for the total water column in the western subpolar North Atlantic increased only by 2% between 1997 and 2003, much less than the 11% that would be expected from the increase in atmospheric CO2 levels.
Kieke, Dagmar; Rhein, Monika; Stramma, Lothar; Smethie, William M jr; Bullister, John L; LeBel, Deborah (2007): Changes in the pool of Labrador Sea Water in the subpolar North Atlantic. Geophysical Research Letters, 34, L06605, doi:10.1029/2006GL028959
Rhein, Monika; Fischer, Jürgen; Mortensen, John (2005): Circulation and Variability in the Subpolar North Atlantic, METEOR Cruise No. 59, Ponta Delgada - Reykjavik - St. John's - Bremerhaven, June 26 to October 5, 2003. METEOR-Berichte, Leitstelle Meteor, Institut für Meereskunde der Universität Hamburg, 05-3, 120 pp, doi:10.2312/cr_m59