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Smetacek, Victor; de Baar, Hein J W; Bathmann, Ulrich; Lochte, Karin; Rutgers van der Loeff, Michiel M (1997): Physical, chemical and biological oceanography during Polarstern cruise ANT-X/6. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.728865, Supplement to: Smetacek, V et al. (1997): Ecology and biogeochemistry of the Antarctic circumpolar current during austral spring: Southern Ocean JGOFS Cruise ANT X/6 of R.V. Polarstern. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 44(1-2), 1-21, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0645(96)00100-2

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Abstract:
The R.V. Polarstern cruise ANT X/6, part of the international Southern Ocean JGOFS programme, investigated phytoplankton spring bloom development and its biogeochemical effects in different water masses of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean: the Polar Frontal region (PFr), the southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current zone (sACC), its boundary with the Weddell Gyre (AWB) and the marginal ice zone (MIZ). The relative roles of physical stability, iron limitation and grazing pressure in enhancing or constraining phytoplankton biomass accumulation were examined. Three sections were carried out between the PFr and the ice edge along the 6°W meridian from early October to late November 1992. This paper summarises the major findings of the cruise and discusses their implications for our understanding of Southern Ocean ecology and biogeochemistry. A major finding was the negligible build-up of plankton biomass and concomitant absence of CO2 drawdown associated with seasonal retreat of the ice cover. In striking contrast to this unexpected poverty of both the MIZ and the frontal region of the AWB, distinct phytoplankton blooms, dominated by different diatom species, accumulated in the PFr. Chlorophyll stocks in the sACC remained monotonously low throughout the study. Our findings confirm those of other studies that frontal regions are the major productive sites in the Southern Ocean and that input of meltwater and associated ice algae to the surface layer from a retreating ice edge is by itself an insufficient condition for induction of phytoplankton blooms. The blooms in the PFr developed under conditions of shallow mixing layers, high iron concentrations and relatively low grazing pressure. However, in all three blooms, high biomass extended to deeper than 70 m, which cannot be explained by either in situ growth or sinking out of a part of the population from the upper euphotic zone. Subduction of adjoining, shallower layers to explain depth distribution is invoked. Despite a clear CO2 drawdown in the Polar Frontal region, the highly variable conditions encountered render reliable estimation of annual CO2 fluxes in the Southern Ocean difficult.
Related to:
Rommets, Joop; Stoll, Michel H C; de Koster, R X; de Bruin, Taco F; de Baar, Hein J W; Bathmann, Ulrich; Smetacek, Victor (1997): Database of the JGOFS expedition ANT X/6 aboard R.V. Polarstern. Supplement data CD-ROM to: Smetacek, Victor; de Baar, Hein JW; Bathmann, Ulrich; Lochte, Karin; Rutgers van der Loeff, Michiel M (1997): Ecology and biogeochemistry of the Antarctic circumpolar current during austral spring: Southern Ocean JGOFS Cruise ANT X/6 of R.V. Polarstern. Deep-Sea Research Part II-Topical Studies in Oceanography, 44(1-2), 1-21, doi:10.1016/S0967-0645(96)00100-2, hdl:10013/epic.37569.d001
Coverage:
Median Latitude: -53.302057 * Median Longitude: -9.051421 * South-bound Latitude: -59.534300 * West-bound Longitude: -61.075300 * North-bound Latitude: -36.200000 * East-bound Longitude: 15.220000
Date/Time Start: 1992-10-01T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1992-11-28T10:00:00
Event(s):
PS22/6-track * Latitude Start: -53.144700 * Longitude Start: -70.909100 * Latitude End: -33.900000 * Longitude End: 18.500000 * Date/Time Start: 1992-09-29T12:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1992-11-30T12:00:00 * Location: South Atlantic Ocean * Campaign: ANT-X/6 (PS22) * Basis: Polarstern * Method/Device: Underway cruise track measurements (CT)
PS22/856C1 * Latitude: -56.769200 * Longitude: -50.003100 * Date/Time: 1992-10-02T13:35:00 * Elevation: -4179.0 m * Location: Scotia Sea, southwest Atlantic * Campaign: ANT-X/6 (PS22) * Basis: Polarstern * Method/Device: CTD/Rosette (CTD-RO) * Comment: Sea-Bird SBE 9
PS22/857 * Latitude: -56.863333 * Longitude: -49.590000 * Date/Time: 1992-10-02T16:00:00 * Elevation: -3681.0 m * Location: Scotia Sea, southwest Atlantic * Campaign: ANT-X/6 (PS22) * Basis: Polarstern * Method/Device: Sampling gear, diverse (DIVERSE) * Comment: CTD 1; SD; APSN; MN 65, 200; GWS; MUC
Size:
43 datasets

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Datasets listed in this publication series

  1. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Ammonia and Ammonium measured on water bottle samples during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.761046
  2. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Bacteria abundance and biomass measured on water bottle samples during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.761088
  3. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Bacterial standing stock and biomass measured on water bottle samples during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.761034
  4. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Biogeochemistry of barium measured on water bottle samples during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.88250
  5. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Biomass of mesozooplankton during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.88608
  6. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): DOC and DON measured on water bottle samples during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.761092
  7. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Diatom abundance during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.88753
  8. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Diatom abundance measured on water bottle samples during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.761036
  9. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Dimethyl sulphoniopropionate (DMSP) and chlorophyll a measured on water bottle samples during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.761083
  10. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Export production by 234Th, including 210Po and 210Pb measured on water bottle samples during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.89432
  11. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Flux of CO2 in atmosphere and ocean along POLARSTERN cruise track of ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.88923
  12. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Ice and animal observations during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.88838
  13. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Integrated primary production by 14C during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.88636
  14. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Metal concentrations in surface sediment sampled during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.88202
  15. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Meteorological observations during cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.88925
  16. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Microbiological data from surface sediments sampled during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.761098
  17. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Nanoplankton abundance measured on water bottle samples during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.761078
  18. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Nutrients and distributions of dissolved and particulate trace metals measured on water bottle samples during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.88343
  19. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Nutrients and pigments measured on water bottle samples during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.761042
  20. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Nutrients measured on water bottle samples during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.761091
  21. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): POC, PON, and Chlorophyll a measured on water bottle samples during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.761090
  22. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Partial pressure of CO2 in the surface ocean along the POLARSTERN cruise track of ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.88924
  23. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Partial pressure of CO2 measured on water bottle samples during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.761081
  24. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Particulated trace metal concentrations measured on water bottle samples during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.761067
  25. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and primary production (PP) measured on water bottle samples during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.88678
  26. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) measured on water bottle samples during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.761093
  27. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Physical oceanography during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.759261
  28. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Physical oceanography measured on water bottle samples during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.761055
  29. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Phytoplankton abundance and biomass measured on water bottle samples during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.761037
  30. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Phytoplankton abundance measured on water bottle samples during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.761069
  31. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.761095
  32. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Pigments measured on water bottle samples during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.761047
  33. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Population density of mesozooplankton during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.88634
  34. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Pore water geochemistry in surface sediments sampled during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.761097
  35. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Seawater carbonate chemistry measured on water bottle samples during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.761038
  36. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Seawater chemistry measured on water bottle samples during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.761080
  37. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Size-fractionated primary production measured on water bottle samples during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.88701
  38. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Surface oceanographic data during cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.88837
  39. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Thymidine and leucine incorporation rates measured on water bottle samples during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.761071
  40. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Total carbon dioxide measured on water bottle samples during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.761035
  41. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Trace metal concentrations measured on water bottle samples during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.761061
  42. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Uptake of ammonium, nitrat, and nitrite measured on water bottle samples during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.761136
  43. Smetacek, V; de Baar, HJW; Bathmann, U et al. (1997): Wind observations during cruise ANT-X/6. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.88836