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Riebesell, Ulf; Zondervan, Ingrid; Rost, Bjoern; Tortell, Philippe Daniel; Zeebe, Richard E; Morel, Francois M M (2000): Seawater carbonate chemistry and processes during experiments with coccolithophores (Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica), 2000. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Riebesell, U et al. (2000): Reduced calcification of marine plankton in response to increased atmospheric CO2. Nature, 407, 364-367,

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The formation of calcareous skeletons by marine planktonic organisms and their subsequent sinking to depth generates a continuous rain of calcium carbonate to the deep ocean and underlying sediments1. This is important in regulating marine carbon cycling and ocean-atmosphere CO2 exchange2. The present rise in atmospheric CO2 levels3 causes significant changes in surface ocean pH and carbonate chemistry4. Such changes have been shown to slow down calcification in corals and coralline macroalgae5,6, but the majority of marine calcification occurs in planktonic organisms. Here we report reduced calcite production at increased CO2 concentrations in monospecific cultures of two dominant marine calcifying phytoplankton species, the coccolithophorids Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica . This was accompanied by an increased proportion of malformed coccoliths and incomplete coccospheres. Diminished calcification led to a reduction in the ratio of calcite precipitation to organic matter production. Similar results were obtained in incubations of natural plankton assemblages from the north Pacific ocean when exposed to experimentally elevated CO2 levels. We suggest that the progressive increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations may therefore slow down the production of calcium carbonate in the surface ocean. As the process of calcification releases CO2 to the atmosphere, the response observed here could potentially act as a negative feedback on atmospheric CO2 levels.
Biomass/Abundance/Elemental composition; Bottles or small containers/Aquaria ( 20 L); Calcification/Dissolution; Chromista; Entire community; Growth/Morphology; Haptophyta; Laboratory experiment; Laboratory strains; Light; Not applicable; Open ocean; Other studied parameter or process; Pelagos; Phytoplankton; Primary production/Photosynthesis; Single species; Temperate
Riebesell_etal_2000a * Device: Experiment (EXP)
In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Lavigne and Gattuso, 2011) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI).
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1Sample IDSample IDRiebesell, Ulf
2Radiation, photosynthetically activePARµmol/m2/sRiebesell, Ulf
3Temperature, waterTemp°CRiebesell, UlfCTD, SEA-BIRD SBE 911plus
4Carbon dioxide, totalTCO2µmol/lRiebesell, Ulf
5pHpHRiebesell, Ulf
6Coccolithophoridae, totalCoccolith#/mlRiebesell, UlfScanning electron microscope (SEM)
7Aphrodite aculeataA. aculeata#Riebesell, UlfCounting
8Phytoplankton cell division ratediv#/dayRiebesell, UlfMeasured
9Carbon dioxide, dissolvedCO2 dissµmol/lRiebesell, Ulf
10Carbon dioxide, dissolvedCO2 dissµmol/lRiebesell, Ulf
11Carbon dioxide, dissolvedCO2 dissµmol/lRiebesell, Ulf
12Carbon dioxide, dissolvedCO2 dissµmol/lRiebesell, Ulf
13Alkalinity, totalATmmol(eq)/lRiebesell, UlfAlkalinity, potentiometric
14Alkalinity, totalATmmol(eq)/lRiebesell, UlfAlkalinity, potentiometric
15Alkalinity, totalATmmol(eq)/lRiebesell, UlfAlkalinity, potentiometric
16Alkalinity, totalATmmol(eq)/lRiebesell, UlfAlkalinity, potentiometric
17Carbon dioxide, totalTCO2µmol/lRiebesell, Ulf
18Carbon dioxide, totalTCO2µmol/lRiebesell, Ulf
19Carbon dioxide, totalTCO2µmol/lRiebesell, Ulf
20pHpHRiebesell, Ulf
21pHpHRiebesell, Ulf
22Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmRiebesell, Ulf
23Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmRiebesell, Ulf
24Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
25Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
26Carbon, total particulateTPC%Riebesell, Ulf
27Production of total particulate carbon per cellTPC prodpmol/#/dayRiebesell, UlfMeasured
28Production of particulate organic carbon per cellPOC prodpmol/#/dayRiebesell, UlfMeasured
29Production of particulate inorganic carbon per cellPIC prodpmol/#/dayRiebesell, Ulf
30δ13C, total particulate carbonδ13C TPC‰ PDBRiebesell, UlfMeasured
31δ13C, particulate organic carbonδ13C POC‰ PDBRiebesell, Ulf
32δ13C, particulate inorganic carbonδ13C PICRiebesell, Ulf
33δ13C, dissolved inorganic carbonδ13C DIC‰ PDBRiebesell, UlfMass spectrometer Finnigan Delta-S
34δ13C, carbon dioxide, aquaticδ13C CO2 aqRiebesell, Ulf
35Isotopic fractionation, during photosynthisepsilon pRiebesell, UlfCalculated after Freeman & Hayes (1992)
36Isotopic fractionation, during photosynthisepsilon pRiebesell, UlfCalculated after Freeman & Hayes (1992)
37Carbon/Nitrogen ratioC/NRiebesell, UlfCalculated, see reference(s)
3006 data points

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