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Schneider, Kenneth; Erez, Jonathan (2006): Seawater carbonate chemistry and processes during experiments with coral Acropora eurystoma, 2006. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Schneider, K; Erez, J (2006): The effect of carbonate chemistry on calcification and photosynthesis in the hermatypic coral Acropora eurystoma. Limnology and Oceanography, 51(3), 1284-1293,

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The rise in atmospheric CO2 has caused significant decrease in sea surface pH and carbonate ion (CO3-2) concentration. This decrease has a negative effect on calcification in hermatypic corals and other calcifying organisms. We report the results of three laboratory experiments designed specifically to separate the effects of the different carbonate chemistry parameters (pH, CO3-2, CO2 [aq], total alkalinity [AT], and total inorganic carbon [CT]) on the calcification, photosynthesis, and respiration of the hermatypic coral Acropora eurystoma. The carbonate system was varied to change pH (7.9-8.5), without changing CT; CT was changed keeping the pH constant, and CT was changed keeping the pCO2 constant. In all of these experiments, calcification (both light and dark) was positively correlated with CO3-2 concentration, suggesting that the corals are not sensitive to pH or CT but to the CO3-2 concentration. A decrease of ~30% in the CO3-2 concentration (which is equivalent to a decrease of about 0.2 pH units in seawater) caused a calcification decrease of about 50%. These results suggest that calcification in today's ocean (pCO2 = 370 ppm) is lower by ~20% compared with preindustrial time (pCO2 = 280 ppm). An additional decrease of ~35% is expected if atmospheric CO2 concentration doubles (pCO2 = 560 ppm). In all of these experiments, photosynthesis and respiration did not show any significant response to changes in the carbonate chemistry of seawater. Based on this observation, we propose a mechanism by which the photosynthesis of symbionts is enhanced by coral calcification at high pH when CO2(aq) is low. Overall it seems that photosynthesis and calcification support each other mainly through internal pH regulation, which provides CO3-2 ions for calcification and CO2(aq) for photosynthesis.
Acropora eurystoma; Animalia; Benthic animals; Benthos; Bottles or small containers/Aquaria (<20 L); Calcification/Dissolution; Cnidaria; Coast and continental shelf; Laboratory experiment; Primary production/Photosynthesis; Red Sea; Respiration; Single species; Temperate
SE_06 * Method/Device: Experiment (EXP)
In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Lavigne and Gattuso, 2011) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI).
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethod/DeviceComment
1IdentificationIDSchneider, Kenneth
2Experimental treatmentExp treatSchneider, Kenneth
3Carbonate system computation flagCSC flagSchneider, Kenneth
4SalinitySalSchneider, Kenneth
5Temperature, waterTemp°CSchneider, Kenneth
6pHpHSchneider, KennethpH meter (Radiometer PHM64)NBS scale
7Alkalinity, totalATµmol/kgSchneider, KennethTitration potentiometric
8Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICµmol/kgSchneider, KennethMeasured
9Carbon dioxideCO2µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
10Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
11Bicarbonate ion[HCO3]-µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
12Fugacity of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)fCO2water_SST_wetµatmNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
13Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
14Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
15Calcite saturation stateOmega CalNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
16Calcification rate of calcium carbonateCalc rate CaCO3µmol/cm2/hSchneider, KennethAlkalinity anomaly technique (Smith and Key, 1975)
17Net photosynthesis ratePNmmol/m2/hSchneider, KennethCalculated
18Gross photosynthesis ratePGmmol/m2/hSchneider, KennethCalculated, see reference(s)
19Respiration rate, communityComm respmmol/m2/hSchneider, KennethCalculated
1292 data points

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