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Hodell, David A; Vayavananda, Anon (1993): Middle Miocene evolution and stable isotope ratios of Globorotalia (Fohsella) in the western equatorial Pacific. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Hodell, DA; Vayavananda, A (1993): Middle Miocene paleoceanography of the western equatorial Pacific (DSDP site 289) and the evolution of Globorotalia (Fohsella). Marine Micropaleontology, 22(4), 279-310,

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Evolution of the planktic foraminiferal lineage Globorotalia (Fohsella) occurred during the Miocene between 23.7 and 11.8 Ma and forms the basis for stratigraphic subdivision of the early middle Miocene (Zones N 10 through N 12). Important morphologic changes within the G. (Fohsella) lineage included a marked increase in test size, a transition from a rounded to an acute periphery, and the development of a keel in later forms. We found that the most rapid changes in morphology of G. (Fohsella) occurred between 13 and 12.7 Ma and coincided with an abrupt increase in the delta18O ratios of shell calcite. Comparison of isotopic results of G. (Fohsella) with other planktic foraminifers indicate that delta18O values of the lineage diverge from surface-dwelling species and approach deep-dwelling species after 13.0 Ma, indicating a change in depth habitat from the surface mixed layer to intermediate depth near the thermocline. Isotopic and faunal evidence suggests that this change in depth stratification was associated with an expansion of the thermocline in the western equatorial Pacific. After adapting to a deeper water habitat at 13.0 Ma, the G. (Fohsella) lineage became extinct abruptly at 11.8 Ma during a period when isotopic and faunal evidence suggest a shoaling of the thermocline. Following the extinction of G. (Fohsella), the ecologic niche of the lineage was filled by the Globorotalia (Menardella) group, which began as a deep-water form and later evolved to an intermediate-water habitat. We suggest that the evolution of G. (Fohsella) and G. (Menardella) were tightly linked to changes in the structure of the thermocline in the western equatorial Pacific.
Latitude: -0.498700 * Longitude: 158.511500
Date/Time Start: 1973-05-31T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1973-05-31T00:00:00
30-289 * Latitude: -0.498700 * Longitude: 158.511500 * Date/Time: 1973-05-31T00:00:00 * Elevation: -2206.0 m * Penetration: 1271 m * Recovery: 709.1 m * Location: South Pacific/PLATEAU * Campaign: Leg30 * Basis: Glomar Challenger * Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL) * Comment: 133 cores; 1270.8 m cored; 0 m drilled; 55.8 % recovery
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