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Lohmann, Gerrit; Knorr, Gregor; Hossain, Akil; Stepanek, Christian (2021): Climate model output illustrating effects of carbon dioxide and ocean mixing on Miocene and Pliocene climate. PANGAEA,

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We present climate model output for various atmosphere and ocean quantities that illustrate the impact of three different types of forcing on global climate characteristics during mid-Pliocene (~3.3 - 3.0 Million years before present, Ma BP) and early to Mid-Miocene (~23-15 Ma BP):
-geography, including setups for modern, mid-Pliocene, and early to Mid-Miocene
-carbon dioxide, ranging from Pre-Industrial (280 parts per million by volume, ppmv) to 840 ppmv
-strength of ocean mixing via enhancement of respective mixing parameters, ranging from the unperturbed state to mild (five times), intermediate (ten times), and strong (twenty-fife times) enhancement of vertical mixing.
The data provided with this data publication has been employed by the authors in the manuscript "Effects of CO2 and ocean mixing on Miocene and Pliocene temperature gradients" (revised for publication in the journal Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, special issue "The Miocene: The Future of the Past") for a comparative study of the effects of carbon dioxide and ocean mixing on various climate characteristics. Here we provide all climate output that has been employed towards creating analyses presented in that publication.
Data is provided at the resolution employed for generating analyses for the manuscript. Atmosphere model output provided at native model resolution (T31, ~3.75°x3.75° horizontally). Ocean output provided at a regular grid (the native grid of the ocean model is curvilinear with a formal resolution of 3.0°x1.8° horizontally). Sea ice cover provided at a resolution of 1.0°x1.0°. Zonal mean of ocean potential temperature over all model levels provided at a latitudinal resolution of 1°, vertically discretized on native ocean model levels (40 pressure levels of non-linear spacing). Depth of the ocean mixed layer, sea surface temperature, and total heat flux across the atmosphere ocean interface given at resolutions of 0.5°x0.5° resolution. Data at higher resolutions is provided towards retaining more details of the coastlines and of ocean gateway regions.
carbon dioxide; climate model; climate patterns; Miocene; ocean mixing; Pliocene
Supplement to:
Lohmann, Gerrit; Knorr, Gregor; Hossain, Akil; Stepanek, Christian (2022): Effects of CO2 and Ocean Mixing on Miocene and Pliocene Temperature Gradients. Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, 37(2), e2020PA003953,
Description of data, that is provided in various NetCDF files - one file per simulation and thematically ordered (there are 100 files in total):
Each file name starts with the simulation name as employed in the publication by Lohmann et al. This is followed by the strings "atmosphere_model_output" or "ocean_model_output" that indicate the climate component to which the model output refers to. The strings "annual" and "monthly" signify annual mean and monthly mean model output, respectively. The file name is completed by a string that signifies the data resolution, "T31" for atmosphere variables, "1.0x1.0deg" or "0.5x0.5deg" for horizontally resolved ocean model output, and "zonal_mean" for zonally averaged three-dimensional ocean output. In addition, we provide global meridional streamfunctions of volume transport in the ocean (identified by the file name string "GMOC") and ocean heat transport by advection at selected latitudes (identified by the file name string "heat_transport").
Variables stored in NetCDF format are (short name followed by long name, units in brackets):
atmosphere output:
aclcov: total cloud cover (fractional)
albedo: surface albedo (fractional)
qvi: vertically integrated water vapor (kg/m²)
srad0d: incoming shortwave radiation at the top of the atmosphere (W/m²)
srad0: net shortwave radiation at the top of the atmosphere (W/m²)
srad0u: upward shortwave radiation at the top of the atmosphere (W/m²)
temp2: near surface air temperature at 2 metres above the ground (K)
trad0: net longwave radiation at the top of the atmosphere (W/m²)
tradsu: upward longwave radiation at the surface (W/m²)
tsurf: surface skin temperature (K)
ocean output:
FLUM: total heat flux across the atmosphere ocean interface (W/m²)
SICOMO: sea ice cover (fractional)
SST: sea surface temperature, that is THO of the first model level (°C)
THO: ocean potential temperature (°C)
zmld: depth of the mixed layer (m)
GMOC: meridional overturning circulation in the ocean (Sv)
TVNET_60N (@60°N), TVNET_50N (@50°N), TVNET_30N (@30°N), TVNET_30S (@30°S): meridional net heat transport by advection in the Atlantic Ocean, diagnosed at selected latitudes (PW)
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethod/DeviceComment
1Binary ObjectBinaryStepanek, Christian
2Binary Object (File Size)Binary (Size)BytesStepanek, Christian
133 data points

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