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Voigt, Carolina; van Delden, Lona; Marushchak, Maija E; Biasi, Christina; Abbott, Benjamin W; Elberling, Bo; Siciliano, Steven D; Sonnentag, Oliver; Stewart, Katherine J; Yang, Yuanhe; Martikainen, Pertti J (2020): Nitrous oxide fluxes from permafrost regions. PANGAEA,

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This dataset is a synthesis of published nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from permafrost-affected soils in Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine permafrost regions. The data includes mean N2O flux rates measured under field (in situ) conditions and in intact plant-soil systems (mesocosms) under near-field conditions. The dataset further includes explanatory environmental parameters such as meteorological data, soil physical-chemical properties, as well as site and experimental information. Data has been synthesized from published studies (see 'Further details'), and in some cases the authors of published studies have been contacted for additional site-level information. The dataset includes studies published until 2019.
We encourage linking additional N2O flux data from unpublished and future studies with similar metadata structure to this dataset, to produce a comprehensive, findable database for N2O fluxes from permafrost regions.
Supplement to:
Voigt, Carolina; Marushchak, Maija E; Abbott, Benjamin W; Biasi, Christina; Elberling, Bo; Siciliano, Steven D; Sonnentag, Oliver; Stewart, Katherine J; Yang, Yuanhe; Martikainen, Pertti J (2020): Nitrous oxide emissions from permafrost-affected soils. Nature Reviews Earth and Environment,
Further details:
Altshuler, Ianina; Ronholm, Jennifer; Layton, Alice; Onstott, T C; Greer, Charles W; Whyte, Lyle G (2019): Denitrifiers, nitrogen-fixing bacteria and N2O soil gas flux in high Arctic ice-wedge polygon cryosols. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 95(5),
Bao, Tao; Zhu, Renbin; Wang, Pei; Ye, Wenjuan; Ma, Dawei; Xu, Hua (2018): Potential effects of ultraviolet radiation reduction on tundra nitrous oxide and methane fluxes in maritime Antarctica. Scientific Reports, 8(1),
Brummell, Martin E; Farrell, Richard E; Hardy, Sarah P; Siciliano, Steven D (2014): Greenhouse gas production and consumption in High Arctic deserts. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 68, 158-165,
Brummell, Martin E; Farrell, Richard E; Siciliano, Steven D (2012): Greenhouse gas soil production and surface fluxes at a high arctic polar oasis. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 52, 1-12,
Cao, Yingfang; Ke, Xun; Guo, Xiaowei; Cao, Guangmin; Du, Yangong (2018): Nitrous Oxide Emission Rates over 10 Years in an Alpine Meadow on the Tibetan Plateau. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 27(3), 1353-1358,
Chang, Ruiying; Wang, Genxu; Yang, Yuanhe; Chen, X (2017): Experimental warming increased soil nitrogen sink in the Tibetan permafrost. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 122(7), 1870-1879,
Chen, Q; Zhu, Renbin; Wang, Qing; Xu, Hua (2014): Methane and nitrous oxide fluxes from four tundra ecotopes in Ny-Ålesund of the High Arctic. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 26(7), 1403-1410,
Chen, X; Wang, Genxu; Zhang, Tao; Mao, Tianxu; Wei, Da; Hu, Zhaoyong; Song, C (2017): Effects of warming and nitrogen fertilization on GHG flux in the permafrost region of an alpine meadow. Atmospheric Environment, 157, 111-124,
Christensen, Torben R; Michelsen, Anders; Jonasson, Sven E (1999): Exchange of CH4 and N2O in a subarctic heath soil: effects of inorganic N and P and amino acid addition. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 31(4), 637-641,
Cui, Qian; Song, C; Wang, Xianwei; Shi, Fuxi; Yu, Xueyang; Tan, Wenwen (2018): Effects of warming on N2O fluxes in a boreal peatland of Permafrost region, Northeast China. Science of the Total Environment, 616-617, 427-434,
Dinsmore, Kerry J; Drewer, Julia; Levy, Peter E; George, Ejin; Lohila, Annalea; Aurela, Mika; Skiba, Ute Maria (2017): Growing season CH4 and N2O fluxes from a subarctic landscape in northern Finland; from chamber to landscape scale. Biogeosciences, 14(4), 799-815,
Du, Yangong; Cui, Yingguang; Xu, Xingliang; Liang, Dongying; Long, Ruijun; Cao, Guangmin (2008): Nitrous oxide emissions from two alpine meadows in the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau. Plant and Soil, 311(1-2), 245-254,
Du, Yangong; Guo, Xiaowei; Cao, Guangmin; Li, Y (2016): Increased Nitrous Oxide Emissions Resulting from Nitrogen Addition and Increased Precipitation in an Alpine Meadow Ecosystem. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 25(1), 447-451,
Du, Yangong; Guo, Xiaowei; Cao, Guangmin; Wang, Bin; Pan, Guoyan; Liu, De Li (2016): Simulation and prediction of nitrous oxide emission by the water and nitrogen management model on the Tibetan plateau. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 65, 49-56,
Elberling, Bo; Christiansen, Hanne H; Hansen, Birger Ulf (2010): High nitrous oxide production from thawing permafrost. Nature Geoscience, 3(5), 332-335,
Gao, Weifeng; Yao, Yunlong; Liang, Hong; Song, L; Sheng, Houcai; Cai, Tijiu; Gao, Dawen (2019): Emissions of nitrous oxide from continuous permafrost region in the Daxing'an Mountains, Northeast China. Atmospheric Environment, 198, 34-45,
Gil, Jenie; Pérez, Tibisay; Boering, K; Martikainen, Pertti J; Biasi, Christina (2017): Mechanisms responsible for high N2O emissions from subarctic permafrost peatlands studied via stable isotope techniques. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 31(1), 172-189,
Gregorich, E G; Hopkins, D W; Elberling, Bo; Sparrow, A D; Novis, P; Greenfield, L G; Rochette, Pierre (2006): Emission of CO2, CH4 and N2O from lakeshore soils in an Antarctic dry valley. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 38(10), 3120-3129,
Jiang, Chunming; Yu, G; Fang, Huajun; Cao, Guangmin; Li, Y (2010): Short-term effect of increasing nitrogen deposition on CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes in an alpine meadow on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. Atmospheric Environment, 44(24), 2920-2926,
Kato, Tomomichi; Hirota, M; Tang, Y; Wada, Eitaro (2011): Spatial variability of CH4 and N2O fluxes in alpine ecosystems on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau. Atmospheric Environment, 45(31), 5632-5639,
Kato, Tomomichi; Toyoda, Sakae; Yoshida, Naohiro; Tang, Y; Wada, Eitaro (2013): Isotopomer and isotopologue signatures of N2O produced in alpine ecosystems on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 27(13), 1517-1526,
Kelsey, Katharine C; Leffler, A Joshua; Beard, Karen H; Choi, Ryan T; Schmutz, Joel A; Welker, Jeffery M (2018): Phenological mismatch in coastal western Alaska may increase summer season greenhouse gas uptake. Environmental Research Letters, 13(4), 044032,
Köster, Egle; Köster, Kajar; Berninger, Frank; Aaltonen, Heidi; Zhou, Xuan; Pumpanen, Jukka (2017): Carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide fluxes from a fire chronosequence in subarctic boreal forests of Canada. Science of the Total Environment, 601-602, 895-905,
Lamb, Eric G; Han, Sukkyun; Lanoil, Brian D; Henry, Gregory HR; Brummell, Martin E; Banerjee, Samiran; Siciliano, Steven D (2011): A High Arctic soil ecosystem resists long-term environmental manipulations. Global Change Biology, 17(10), 3187-3194,
Li, F; Zhu, Renbin; Bao, Tao; Wang, Qing; Xu, Hua (2016): Sunlight stimulates methane uptake and nitrous oxide emission from the High Arctic tundra. Science of the Total Environment, 572, 1150-1160,
Lin, X; Wang, S; Ma, Xiuzhi; Xu, Guangping; Luo, Caiyun; Li, Y; Jiang, Gaoming; Xie, Z (2009): Fluxes of CO2, CH4, and N2O in an alpine meadow affected by yak excreta on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau during summer grazing periods. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 41(4), 718-725,
Liu, Xingren; Zhang, Qingwen; Li, S; Zhang, Leiming; Ren, Jianqiang (2017): Simulated NH 4+-N Deposition Inhibits CH4 Uptake and Promotes N2O Emission in the Meadow Steppe of Inner Mongolia, China. Pedosphere, 27(2), 306-317,
Li, Y; Dong, Shikui; Liu, Shiliang; Zhou, Huakun; Gao, Qingzhu; Cao, Guangmin; Wang, Xuexia; Su, Xukun; Zhang, Yong; Tang, Lin; Zhao, Haidi; Wu, Xiaoyu (2015): Seasonal changes of CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes in different types of alpine grassland in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 80, 306-314,
Marushchak, Maija E; Pitkämäki, A; Koponen, H; Biasi, Christina; Seppälä, Matti; Martikainen, Pertti J (2011): Hot spots for nitrous oxide emissions found in different types of permafrost peatlands. Global Change Biology, 17(8), 2601-2614,
Ma, Wai K; Schautz, Alexandra; Fishback, Lee-Ann E; Bedard-Haughn, Angela; Farrell, Richard E; Siciliano, Steven D (2007): Assessing the potential of ammonia oxidizing bacteria to produce nitrous oxide in soils of a high arctic lowland ecosystem on Devon Island, Canada. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 39(8), 2001-2013,
Morishita, T; Matsuura, Yojiro; Kajimoto, Takuya; Osawa, Akira; Zyryanova, Olga A; Prokushkin, Anatoly S (2014): CH4 and N2O dynamics of a Larix gmelinii forest in a continuous permafrost region of central Siberia during the growing season. Polar Science, 8(2), 156-165,
Mu, C C; Abbott, Benjamin W; Zhao, Qian; Su, H; Wang, S F; Wu, Q B; Zhang, T J; Wu, X D (2017): Permafrost collapse shifts alpine tundra to a carbon source but reduces N2O and CH4 release on the northern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Geophysical Research Letters, 44(17), 8945-8952,
Neff, J C; Bowman, William D; Holland, Elisabeth A; Fisk, Melany C; Schmidt, Steven K (1994): Fluxes of nitrous oxide and methane from nitrogen-amended soils in a Colorado alpine ecosystem. Biogeochemistry, 27(1),
Paré, Maxime C; Bedard-Haughn, Angela (2012): Landscape-scale N mineralization and greenhouse gas emissions in Canadian Cryosols. Geoderma, 189-190, 469-479,
Pei, Zhi-Yong; Ouyang, Hua; Zhou, Cai-Ping; Xu, Xing-Liang (2004): N2O Exchange Within a Soil and Atmosphere Profile in Alpine Grasslands on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. Acta Botanica Sinica, 46 (1), 20-28
Takakai, Fumiaki; Desyatkin, Alexey R; Lopez, C M Larry; Fedorov, Alexander N; Desyatkin, Roman V; Hatano, Ryusuke (2008): CH4 and N2O emissions from a forest-alas ecosystem in the permafrost taiga forest region, eastern Siberia, Russia. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 113(G2), n/a-n/a,
Toda, Hideshige; Yagi, Kazuyuki; Yoh, Muneoki; Takeuchi, Makoto (1994): Measurement of Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from the Peatlands in Northern Québec, Canada. Proceedings of the NIPR Symposium on Polar Biology, 7, 237-242
Voigt, Carolina; Lamprecht, Richard E; Marushchak, Maija E; Lind, Saara E; Novakovskiy, Alexander; Aurela, Mika; Martikainen, Pertti J; Biasi, Christina (2017): Warming of subarctic tundra increases emissions of all three important greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Global Change Biology, 23(8), 3121-3138,
Voigt, Carolina; Marushchak, Maija E; Lamprecht, Richard E; Jackowicz-Korczyński, Marcin; Lindgren, Amelie; Mastepanov, Mikhail; Granlund, Lars; Christensen, Torben R; Tahvanainen, Teemu; Martikainen, Pertti J; Biasi, Christina (2017): Increased nitrous oxide emissions from Arctic peatlands after permafrost thaw. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(24), 6238-6243,
Voigt, Carolina; Marushchak, Maija E; Mastepanov, Mikhail; Lamprecht, Richard E; Christensen, Torben R; Dorodnikov, Maxim; Jackowicz-Korczyński, Marcin; Lindgren, Amelie; Lohila, Annalea; Nykänen, Hannu; Oinonen, M; Oksanen, Timo; Palonen, Vesa; Treat, Claire C; Martikainen, Pertti J; Biasi, Christina (2019): Ecosystem carbon response of an Arctic peatland to simulated permafrost thaw. Global Change Biology, 25(5), 1746-1764,
Wagner, Ioan; Hung, Jacqueline K Y; Neil, Allison; Scott, Neal A (2019): Net greenhouse gas fluxes from three High Arctic plant communities along a moisture gradient. Arctic Science, 5(4), 185-201,
Wang, H; Yu, Lingfei; Zhang, Zhenhua; Liu, Wei; Chen, Litong; Cao, Guangmin; Yue, Haowei; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Yunfeng; Tang, Y; He, Jin-Sheng (2017): Molecular mechanisms of water table lowering and nitrogen deposition in affecting greenhouse gas emissions from a Tibetan alpine wetland. Global Change Biology, 23(2), 815-829,
Williams, Mark W; Brooks, Paul D; Seastedt, Tim (1998): Nitrogen and Carbon Soil Dynamics in Response to Climate Change in a High-Elevation Ecosystem in the Rocky Mountains, U.S.A. Arctic and Alpine Research, 30(1), 26,
Yang, Guibiao; Peng, Yunfeng; Marushchak, Maija E; Chen, Y; Wang, Guanqin; Li, Fei; Zhang, Dianye; Wang, Jun; Yu, Jianchun; Liu, Li; Qin, Shuqi; Kou, Dan; Yang, Yuanhe (2018): Magnitude and Pathways of Increased Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Uplands Following Permafrost Thaw. Environmental Science & Technology, 52(16), 9162-9169,
Yan, Yulong; Ganjurjav, Hasbagan; Hu, Guozheng; Liang, Yan; Li, Y; He, Shicheng; Danjiu, Luobu; Yang, J; Gao, Qingzhu (2018): Nitrogen deposition induced significant increase of N2O emissions in an dry alpine meadow on the central Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment, 265, 45-53,
Zhu, Renbin; Chen, Q; Ding, Wei; Xu, Hua (2012): Impact of seabird activity on nitrous oxide and methane fluxes from High Arctic tundra in Svalbard, Norway. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 117(G4), n/a-n/a,
Zhu, Renbin; Ma, Dawei; Xu, Hua (2014): Summertime N2O, CH4 and CO2 exchanges from a tundra marsh and an upland tundra in maritime Antarctica. Atmospheric Environment, 83, 269-281,
Median Latitude: 41.597664 * Median Longitude: 144.646352 * South-bound Latitude: -78.020000 * West-bound Longitude: 11.930000 * North-bound Latitude: 82.580000 * East-bound Longitude: -20.500000
Date/Time Start: 1991-07-22T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2016-09-30T00:00:00
Abisko_N2O * Latitude: 68.330000 * Longitude: 20.850000 * Date/Time Start: 1996-07-03T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1996-08-28T00:00:00 * Location: Sweden
Alexandra_Fjord_N2O * Latitude: 78.880000 * Longitude: -75.920000 * Date/Time Start: 2009-06-01T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2009-08-31T00:00:00 * Location: Canada
Ardley_Island_N2O * Latitude: -62.220000 * Longitude: -58.930000 * Date/Time Start: 2011-12-01T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2012-02-21T00:00:00 * Location: Antarctica
If not reported, water-filled pore space (WFPS) was calculated as follows: WFPS (%) = VWC/(1-BD/PD)*100, where VWC is the volumetric water content, BD is the bulk density, and PD is the particle density. If BD was not reported, BD was estimated from the SOM content using functions developed for Arctic soils (Hossain et al, 2015) as follows: 0.075+1.301*EXP(-0.06*SOM) for mineral soils, and 0.043*0+4.258*EXP(-0.047*SOM) for organic soils. If not reported, SOM via loss on ignition was derived from the soil carbon content as follows: SOM (%) = C content*2. If the resulting SOM value was >100%, SOM (%) = C content*1.724. PD can be derived as follows (Okruszko, 1971): PD = 0.011*(100-SOM)+1.451 (see references Okruszko, 1971 and Hossain et al, 2015).
The term ”topsoil” depends on the exact depths the soil characteristics are reported in the individual publications, but generally the soil layer of 0–10cm was used.
Column ”SOC” includes mostly total soil C content (reported in the majority of studies), and on some occasions total organic C.
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethod/DeviceComment
1Event labelEventVoigt, Carolina
2Sample code/labelSample labelVoigt, Carolina
3Nitrous oxide flux, in mass nitrous oxideN2O fluxµg/m2/dVoigt, Carolina
4Permafrost extentPermafrost extVoigt, Carolinapermafrost coverage
5ZoneZoneVoigt, Carolinapermafrost region
6EcosystemEcosystemVoigt, Carolinaecosystem type
7Vegetation typeVegetation typeVoigt, Carolinavegetation coverage
8LocationLocationVoigt, Carolinadescription of landcover mass
9CountryCountryVoigt, Carolinacountry the measurement was taken in
10Area/localityAreaVoigt, Carolinasubregion
11SiteSiteVoigt, Carolina
12LATITUDELatitudeVoigt, CarolinaGeocode
13LONGITUDELongitudeVoigt, CarolinaGeocode
14Number of measurement seasonsN meas seasons#Voigt, Carolinanumber of measurement seasons included in the flux estimate
15Year of observationYeara ADVoigt, Carolinayear the measurement period started
16MonthMonthVoigt, Carolinamonth the measurement period started
17DayDayVoigt, Carolinaday the measurement period started
18Year of observationYeara ADVoigt, Carolinayear the measurement period ended
19MonthMonthVoigt, Carolinamonth the measurement period ended
20DayDayVoigt, Carolinaday the measurement period ended
21Organic carbon, soilSOC%Voigt, CarolinaCarbon content in topsoil
22Nitrogen, soilSN%Voigt, CarolinaNitrogen content in topsoil
23Carbon/Nitrogen ratioC/NVoigt, CarolinaC/N ratio in topsoil
24AmmoniumNH4mg/kgVoigt, CarolinaAmmonium content in topsoil, mass nitrogen per mass dry weight of soil (mg NH4-N per kg DW)
25NitrateNO3mg/kgVoigt, CarolinaNitrate content in topsoil, mass nitrogen per mass dry weight of soil (mg NH4-N per kg DW)
26Soil pHSoil pHVoigt, CarolinapH in topsoil
27Soil organic matterSoil OM%Voigt, Carolina
28Density, active layer, bulkBD act layerg/cm3Voigt, Carolinabulk density of topsoil/active layer
29Soil moistureSoil moisture%Voigt, Carolina
30Soil water content, gravimetricgrav SWCg/gVoigt, Carolinagravimetric water content reported in g H2O per g dry weight of soil
31Soil water content, volumetricvol SWCm3/m3Voigt, Carolina
32Water holding capacityWHC%Voigt, Carolina
33Water filled pore spaceWFPS%Voigt, Carolina
34Water filled pore space, calculatedWFPS calc%Voigt, Carolinacalculated water-filled pore space if not reported in papers, based on other soil moisture parameters
35Temperature, air, annual meanMAAT°CVoigt, Carolinamean annual air temperature at study site
36Temperature, airTTT°CVoigt, Carolinaactual air temperature during measurement period
37Temperature, soilT soil°CVoigt, Carolinaactual soil temperature during measurement period
38Precipitation, annual meanMAPmmVoigt, Carolina
39Thaw depth of active layer, meanThaw depth meancmVoigt, Carolinamean thaw depth during growing season
40Thaw depth of active layer, maximumThaw depth maxcmVoigt, Carolinamaximum thaw / active layer depth
41Type of studyStudy typeVoigt, Carolinastudy type
42Hemeroby/disturbanceHemeroby/disturbanceVoigt, Carolina
43Experimental treatmentExp treatVoigt, Carolinaexperimental manipulation
44Type of disturbanceDisturbance TypeVoigt, Carolinadisturbance type
45Number of measurementsn#Voigt, Carolinanumber of N2O flux measurements included in the N2O estimate in n2o.flux
46ReplicatesRepl#Voigt, Carolinareplicate collars per landcover class used in n2o.flux estimate
47Original valueOrig valVoigt, Carolinaoriginal value of N2O flux reported in publication
48Original unitOrig unitVoigt, Carolinaoriginal unit of N2O flux reported in publication
49Analytical methodMethodVoigt, Carolinameasurement method (GC/static=manual syringe sampling followed by GC analysis; portable gas analyzer=direct flux measurement with dynamic chamber; snow/soil gradient=flux calculated from concentration gradient)
50Type of chamberChamber typeVoigt, Carolinachamber type
51Time in minutesTimeminVoigt, Carolina
52Time in minutesTimeminVoigt, Carolinamaximum closure time of chamber during measurement
53Number of pointsPoints#Voigt, Carolinaconcentration time points measured during measurement
54Presence/absencePresence/absenceVoigt, CarolinaCO2 fluxes reported in the same paper
55Presence/absencePresence/absenceVoigt, CarolinaCH4 fluxes reported in the same paper
56Publication of dataPubl dataVoigt, Carolina
57Reference of dataRef dataVoigt, Carolinareference for publication with N2O flux data
10302 data points

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