We provide a climatic data set of the history of annual mean surface air temperature (SAT) over the last 1,000,000 years. The SAT (i.e. the temperature at 2 meter height above the ground) has been simulated by means of the Community Earth System Models (COSMOS, consisting of ECHAM5, JSBACH, MPIOM). These have been exposed to the solution of elements of the Earth's orbit around the sun (eccentricity, obliquity, longitude of the perihelion) by Laskar et al. (2004) for the last 1,000,000 years. Towards practical feasibility of the climate simulation, the orbital forcing has been accelerated by a factor of 100 based on the method described by Lorenz and Lohmann (2004). A detailed description of the COSMOS' application in the framework of paleoclimate can be found, for example, in the publication by Stepanek and Lohmann (2012).
Laskar, Jacques; Robutel, P; Joutel, F; Gastineau, M; Correia, A C M; Levrard, B (2004): A long-term numerical solution for the insolation quantities of the Earth. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 428(1), 261-285, https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20041335
Lorenz, Stephan J; Lohmann, Gerrit (2004): Acceleration technique for Milankovitch type forcing in a coupled atmosphere-ocean circulation model: method and application for the Holocene. Climate Dynamics, 23(7-8), 727-743, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-004-0469-y
Description of the time axis:
Time in the data set runs backward. This means that:
-year 0000 in the data set refers to the year 1,000,000 before present
-year 0001 refers to year 999,900 before present
-year 10,000 in the data set refers to the year 0 before present
"Present" refers to the astronomical standard epoch J2000.