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Wolff, Eric W (2003): GRIP Dielectric Profiling (DEP) in full resolution. PANGAEA,

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Clausen, Henrik Brink; Hammer, C U; Christensen, John P; Hvidberg, Christine Schøtt; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Legrand, Michel R; Steffensen, Jørgen Peder (1995): 1250 years of global volcanism as revealed by central Greenland ice cores. In: Delmas, R (ed.), Ice Core Studies of Global Biogeochemical cycles, Annecy, France, NATO Advanced Sciences Institutes Series 1, 30, 175-194
GRIP Members (1993): Climate instability during the last interglacial period recorded in the GRIP ice core. Nature, 364(6434), 203-207,
GRIP/GISP (1997): The Greenland Summit Ice Cores CD-ROM GISP2/GRIP. National Snow and Ice Data Center, University of Colorado at Boulder, and World Data Center for Paleoclimatology, National Geophysical Data Center, Boulder Colorado, CD-ROM, grip-gisp.iso
Moore, J Casey; Mulvaney, Robert; Paren, J G (1989): Dielectric stratigraphy of ice: a new technique for determining total ionic concentrations in polar ice cores. Geophysical Research Letters, 16, 1177-1180,
Moore, J Casey; Paren, J G (1987): A new technique for dielectric logging of Antarctic ice cores. Journal de Physique, 48C, 155-160,
Moore, J Casey; Wolff, Eric W; Clausen, Henrik Brink; Hammer, C U; Legrand, Michel R; Fuhrer, Katrin (1994): Electrical response of the Summit-Greenland ice core to ammonium, sulphuric acid, and hydrochloric acid. Geophysical Research Letters, 21(7), 565-568,
Taylor, Kendrick C; Hammer, C U; Alley, Richard B; Clausen, Henrik Brink; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Gow, A J; Gundestrup, Niels S; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Moore, J Casey; Waddington, Edwin D (1993): Electrical conductivity measurements from the GISP2 and GRIP Greenland ice cores. Nature, 366(6455), 549-552,
Wolff, Eric W; Moore, J Casey; Clausen, Henrik Brink; Hammer, C U (1997): Climatic implications of background acidity and other chemistry derived from electrical studies of the Greenland Ice Core Project ice core. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 102(C12), 26325-26332,
Wolff, Eric W; Moore, J Casey; Clausen, Henrik Brink; Hammer, C U; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Fuhrer, Katrin (1995): Long-term changes in the acid and salt concentrations of the Greenland Ice Core Project ice core from electrical stratigraphy. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 100(D8), 16249-16264,
Greenland Ice Core Projects (GRIP/GISP/NGRIP)
Latitude: 72.570000 * Longitude: -37.620000
Date/Time Start: 1989-06-01T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1992-07-12T00:00:00
Minimum DEPTH, ice/snow: 137.980 m * Maximum DEPTH, ice/snow: 3028.630 m
GRIP * Latitude: 72.570000 * Longitude: -37.620000 * Date/Time Start: 1989-06-01T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1992-07-12T00:00:00 * Elevation: 3232.0 m * Penetration: 3028.8 m * Recovery: 3028.8 m * Location: Greenland * Campaign: GRIP * Basis: Sampling/drilling ice * Method/Device: ISTUK electromechanical drill (ISTUK)
Sigma infinity has a pure ice background of 9 microsiemens/m, and responds to the chemistry of the ice. The only components known to cause an increased sigma infinity are acidity, ammonium and chloride (Wolff et al., 1995; Moore, et al., 1994). A calibration is given in Wolff et al., (1995). During warm periods, the DEP is mainly a record of acidity, while during cold (glacial) periods it is responding mainly to ammonium and/or chloride.
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethod/DeviceComment
1DEPTH, ice/snowDepth ice/snowmGeocode
2Conductivity, specificCondµS/mWolff, Eric WDielectric profiling, DEP (Wilhelms, 2000)sigma infinity = high frequency limit of conductivity, corrected to -15 deg C
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