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Righetti, Damiano; Vogt, Meike; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Guiry, Michael D; Gruber, Nicolas (2019): PHYTOBASE: A global synthesis of open ocean phytoplankton occurrences. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.904397

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Abstract:
Marine phytoplankton are responsible for half of the global net primary production and perform multiple other ecological functions and services of the global ocean. These photosynthetic organisms comprise more than 4300 marine species, but their biogeographic patterns and the resulting species diversity are poorly known, mostly owing to severe data limitations. Here, we compile, synthesize, and harmonize marine phytoplankton occurrence data from the two largest biological occurrence archives (Ocean Biogeographic Information System; OBIS, and Global Biodiversity Information Facility; GBIF) and three recent data collections. The resulting PhytoBase data set contains over 1.36 million marine phytoplankton occurrence records (1.28 million at the level of species) for a total of 1704 species, spanning the principal groups of the Bacillariophyceae, Dinoflagellata, and Haptophyta as well as several other groups. This data compilation increases the amount of phytoplankton occurrence data available through the single largest contributing archive (OBIS) by 65%. Data span all ocean basins, latitudes and most seasons. Analyzing the oceanic inventory of sampled phytoplankton species richness at the broadest spatial scales possible, using a resampling procedure, we find that richness tends to saturate in the pantropics at ~93% of all species in our database, at ~64% in temperate waters, and at ~35% in the cold Northern Hemisphere, while the Southern Hemisphere remains underexplored. We provide metadata on the cruise, research institution, depth, and date for each occurrence record. Cell-counts for 193 763 records are also included. We strongly recommend consideration of global spatiotemporal biases in sampling intensity and varying taxonomic sampling scopes between research programs when analyzing the occurrence database. Including such information into statistical analysis tools, such as species distribution models, may serve to project the diversity, niches, and distribution of species in the contemporary and future ocean, opening the door for a quantification of macro-ecological phytoplankton patterns.
Keyword(s):
abundance data; autotrophic organisms; global ocean; marine microbes; occurrence data; species richness; taxonomic harmonization
Supplement to:
Righetti, Damiano; Vogt, Meike; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Gruber, Nicolas (in review): PHYTOBASE: A global synthesis of open ocean phytoplankton occurrences. Earth System Science Data Discussions, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2019-159
Related to:
Buitenhuis, Erik Theodoor; Li, William K W; Vaulot, D; Lomas, Michael W; Landry, M R; Partensky, Frédéric; Karl, David Michael; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Campbell, L; Jacquet, Stéphan; Lantoine, F; Chavez, Francisco P; Macias, D; Gosselin, M; McManus, George B (2012): Picophytoplankton biomass distribution in the global ocean. Earth System Science Data, 4(1), 37-46, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-4-37-2012
Leblanc, Karine; Arístegui Ruiz, Javier; Armand, Leanne K; Assmy, Philipp; Beker, B; Bode, Antonio; Breton, E; Cornet, V; Gibson, J; Gosselin, M-P; Kopczynska, E E; Marshall, Harold G; Peloquin, Jill M; Piontkovski, S; Poulton, Alex J; Quéguiner, Bernard; Schiebel, Ralf; Shipe, R; Stefels, Jacqueline; van Leeuwe, Maria A; Varela, M; Widdicombe, Claire E; Yallop, M (2012): A global diatom database - abundance, biovolume and biomass in the world ocean. Earth System Science Data, 4, 149-165, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-4-149-2012
Luo, Yawei; Doney, Scott C; Anderson, L A; Benavides, Mar; Berman-Frank, I; Bode, Antonio; Bonnet, S; Boström, Kjärstin H; Böttjer, D; Capone, D G; Carpenter, E J; Chen, Yaw-Lin; Church, Matthew J; Dore, John E; Falcón, Luisa I; Fernández, A; Foster, R A; Furuya, Ken; Gomez, Fernando; Gundersen, Kjell; Hynes, Annette M; Karl, David Michael; Kitajima, Satoshi; Langlois, Rebecca; LaRoche, Julie; Letelier, Ricardo M; Marañón, Emilio; McGillicuddy Jr, Dennis J; Moisander, Pia H; Moore, C Mark; Mouriño-Carballido, Beatriz; Mulholland, Margaret R; Needoba, Joseph A; Orcutt, Karen M; Poulton, Alex J; Rahav, Eyal; Raimbault, Patrick; Rees, Andrew; Riemann, Lasse; Shiozaki, Takuhei; Subramaniam, Ajit; Tyrrell, Toby; Turk-Kubo, Kendra A; Varela, Manuel; Villareal, Tracy A; Webb, Eric A; White, Angelicque E; Wu, Jingfeng; Zehr, Jonathan P (2012): Database of diazotrophs in global ocean: abundance, biomass and nitrogen fixation rates. Earth System Science Data, 4, 47-73, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-4-47-2012
O'Brien, Colleen J; Peloquin, Jill A; Vogt, Martin; Heinle, M; Gruber, Nicolas; Ajani, P; Andruleit, Harald; Aristegui, J; Beaufort, Luc; Estrada, Marta; Karentz, Deneb; Kopczynska, E E; Lee, R; Poulton, Alex J; Pritchard, T; Widdicombe, Claire E (2013): Global marine plankton functional type biomass distributions: coccolithophores. Earth System Science Data, 5(2), 259-276, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-5-259-2013
Sal, Sofía; Lopez-Urrutia, Angel; Irigoien, Xabier; Harbour, Derek; Harris, Roger P (2013): Marine microplankton diversity database. Ecology, 94(7), 1658, https://doi.org/10.1890/13-0236.1
Vogt, Meike; O'Brien, Colleen J; Peloquin, Jill M; Schoemann, Véronique; Breton, Elsa; Estrada, Marta; Gibson, John; Karentz, Deneb; van Leeuwe, Maria A; Stefels, Jacqueline; Widdicombe, Claire E; Peperzak, Louis (2012): Global marine plankton functional type biomass distributions: Phaeocystis spp. Earth System Science Data, 4, 107-120, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-4-107-2012
Original version:
Buitenhuis, Erik Theodoor; Li, William K W; Vaulot, D; Lomas, Michael W; Landry, M R; Partensky, Frédéric; Karl, David Michael; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Campbell, L; Jacquet, Stéphan; Lantoine, F; Chavez, Francisco P; Macias, D; Gosselin, M; McManus, George B (2012): Global distributions of picophytoplankton abundance and biomass - Gridded data product (NetCDF) - Contribution to the MAREDAT World Ocean Atlas of Plankton Functional Types. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.777385
Leblanc, Karine; Arístegui Ruiz, Javier; Armand, Leanne K; Assmy, Philipp; Beker, B; Bode, Antonio; Breton, E; Cornet, V; Gibson, J; Gosselin, M-P; Kopczynska, E E; Marshall, Harold G; Peloquin, Jill M; Piontkovski, S; Poulton, Alex J; Quéguiner, Bernard; Schiebel, Ralf; Shipe, R; Stefels, Jacqueline; van Leeuwe, Maria A; Varela, M; Widdicombe, Claire E; Yallop, M (2012): Global distributions of diatoms abundance, biovolume and biomass - Gridded data product (NetCDF) - Contribution to the MAREDAT World Ocean Atlas of Plankton Functional Types. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.777384
Luo, Yawei; Doney, Scott C; Anderson, L A; Benavides, Mar; Berman-Frank, I; Bode, Antonio; Bonnet, S; Boström, Kjärstin H; Böttjer, D; Capone, D G; Carpenter, E J; Chen, Yaw-Lin; Church, Matthew J; Dore, John E; Falcón, Luisa I; Fernández, A; Foster, R A; Furuya, Ken; Gomez, Fernando; Gundersen, Kjell; Hynes, Annette M; Karl, David Michael; Kitajima, Satoshi; Langlois, Rebecca; LaRoche, Julie; Letelier, Ricardo M; Marañón, Emilio; McGillicuddy Jr, Dennis J; Moisander, Pia H; Moore, C Mark; Mouriño-Carballido, Beatriz; Mulholland, Margaret R; Needoba, Joseph A; Orcutt, Karen M; Poulton, Alex J; Rahav, Eyal; Raimbault, Patrick; Rees, Andrew; Riemann, Lasse; Shiozaki, Takuhei; Subramaniam, Ajit; Tyrrell, Toby; Turk-Kubo, Kendra A; Varela, Manuel; Villareal, Tracy A; Webb, Eric A; White, Angelicque E; Wu, Jingfeng; Zehr, Jonathan P (2013): Global distributions of diazotrophs abundance, biomass and nitrogen fixation rates - Collection of source datasets - Contribution to the MAREDAT World Ocean Atlas of Plankton Functional Types. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.818214
Righetti, Damiano; Vogt, Meike; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Gruber, Nicolas (2019): PHYTOBASE: A global synthesis of open ocean phytoplankton occurrences (Version 1). PANGAEA, http://hs.pangaea.de/Projects/PHYTOBASE/Version1.zip
Vogt, Meike; O'Brien, Colleen J; Peloquin, Jill M; Schoemann, Véronique; Breton, Elsa; Estrada, Marta; Gibson, John; Karentz, Deneb; van Leeuwe, Maria A; Stefels, Jacqueline; Widdicombe, Claire E; Peperzak, Louis (2012): Global distributions of Phaeocystis sp. abundance and biomass - Gridded data product (NetCDF) - Contribution to the MAREDAT World Ocean Atlas of Plankton Functional Types. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.779101
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