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Arévalo-Martínez, Damian L; Kock, Annette; Bange, Hermann Werner (2019): High Resolution Underway Nitrous Oxide Measurements during R/V Meteor Cruises M90, M91 and M93. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Arévalo-Martínez, Damian L; Kock, Annette; Löscher, Carolin R; Schmitz, Ruth A; Bange, Hermann Werner (2015): Massive nitrous oxide emissions from the tropical South Pacific Ocean. Nature Geoscience, 8(7), 530-533,

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Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas and a key compound in stratospheric ozone depletion. In the ocean, nitrous oxide is produced at intermediate depths through nitrification and denitrification, in particular at low oxygen concentrations. Although a third of natural emissions of nitrous oxide to the atmosphere originate from the ocean, considerable uncertainties in the distribution and magnitude of the emissions still exist. Here we present high-resolution surface measurements and vertical profiles of nitrous oxide that include the highest reported nitrous oxide concentrations in marine surface waters, suggesting that there is a hotspot of nitrous oxide emissions in high-productivity upwelling ecosystems along the Peruvian coast. We estimate that off Peru, the extremely high nitrous oxide supersaturations we observed drive a massive efflux of 0.2–0.9 Tg of nitrogen emitted as nitrous oxide per year, equivalent to 5–22% of previous estimates of global marine nitrous oxide emissions. Nutrient and gene abundance data suggest that coupled nitrification–denitrification in the upper oxygen minimum zone and transport of resulting nitrous oxide to the surface by upwelling lead to the high nitrous oxide concentrations. Our estimate of nitrous oxide emissions from the Peruvian coast surpasses values from similar, highly productive areas.
Median Latitude: -12.881452 * Median Longitude: -80.052951 * South-bound Latitude: -24.000098 * West-bound Longitude: -88.007425 * North-bound Latitude: 0.001930 * East-bound Longitude: -75.165207
Date/Time Start: 2012-11-02T17:56:00 * Date/Time End: 2013-03-04T18:08:00
M90-track * Latitude Start: 9.365500 * Longitude Start: -79.889700 * Latitude End: -12.047700 * Longitude End: -77.150100 * Date/Time Start: 2012-10-28T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2012-11-28T00:00:00 * Location: Southeast Pacific * Campaign: M90 * Basis: Meteor (1986) * Method/Device: Underway cruise track measurements (CT) * Comment: Colon - Callao
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