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Bhatnagar, Srijak; Cowley, Elise S; Kopf, Sebastian H; Pérez Casto, Sherlynette; Kearney, Sean; Dawson, Scott C; Hanselmann, Kurt; Ruff, S Emil (2019): Microbial diversity and physicochemistry of an estuarine phototrophic bloom in the Trunk River, Wood Hole (MA). PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Bhatnagar, S et al. (in prep.): Microbial community dynamics and coexistence in a sulfide-driven phototrophic bloom.

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Organic-rich, brackish water bodies are common along coastlines and important for the biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus. These ecosystems are dynamic and frequently disturbed by weather, tides, erosion, and human activities. Here, we investigated a shallow, brackish lagoon (Trunk River, Woods Hole, MA) that contains layers of decaying organic matter, which releases hydrogen sulfide upon physical disturbance. To study the microbial habitat and community response to perturbations, we carried out replicated in situ experiments, analyzing the physicochemistry and microbial community succession. At each site, yellow blooms of microorganisms formed within three days after disturbance. The water column changed substantially, establishing steep gradients of temperature, oxygen, sulfide, and salinity. The diverse microbial community at early timepoints was replaced by a community largely dominated by a clonal population of green sulfur bacteria (GSB) Prosthecochloris vibrioformis. Despite its dominance, this population coexisted with less abundant GSBs affiliating with Chlorobaculum. This population represents a new Chlorobaculum species, as indicated by phylogenetic and phylogenomic placement, ANI values, and CRISPR-Cas genes. Interestingly, despite their dominance the GSB coexisted with purple sulfur bacteria (Halochromatium sp. and Allochromatium sp.), anoxygenic phototrophic Chloroflexi (Chloroploca sp.) and other phototrophs. A high relative sequence abundance of Microviridae viruses was found in the metagenome, indicating their activity in the bloom. After two weeks the bloom subsided and the ecosystem slowly returned towards a diverse state and ecosystem functions, indicating its resilience after disturbance. This work provides insights into the assembly, succession, and coexistence of oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs in a common coastal ecosystem. The transient bloom was spatially structured analogous to a phototrophic microbial mat with distinct ecological niches for multiple clades of Cyanobacteria, purple and green sulfur bacteria. We suggest that a cryptic sulfur cycle in the water column between sulfur-oxidizing phototrophs, sulfate reducers, and sulfur oxidizers enhanced the development of the bloom. The bloom was likely driven by new species in the order Chlorobiales and possibly impacted by viruses of the family Microviridae.
anoxygenic phototrophy; brackish coastal ecosystem; CRISPR-Cas; Green sulfur bacteria; microbial bloom; Microbial succession; Microviridae; Prosthecochloris; resilience; Virus
Further details:
Bhatnagar, Srijak; Cowley, Elise S; Kopf, Sebastian H; Pérez Casto, Sherlynette; Kearney, Sean; Dawson, Scott C; Hanselmann, Kurt; Ruff, S Emil (2019): Amplicon and shotgun metagenomic sequences from a phototrophic bloom in a shallow, brackish lagoon (Trunk River, Woods Hole, MA). European Nucleotide Archive (ENA), insdc:PRJNA530984
Bhatnagar, Srijak; Cowley, Elise S; Kopf, Sebastian H; Pérez Casto, Sherlynette; Kearney, Sean; Dawson, Scott C; Hanselmann, Kurt; Ruff, S Emil (2019): ASV data of an estuarine phototrophic bloom in the Trunk River, Wood Hole (MA). PANGAEA,
Ruff, S Emil (2019): Community analysis workflow as R code. PANGAEA,
Latitude: 41.534985 * Longitude: -70.641330
Date/Time Start: 2015-07-23T18:40:00 * Date/Time End: 2015-08-06T00:00:00
Minimum DEPTH, water: 0.05 m * Maximum DEPTH, water: 0.35 m
Trunk_River_Woods_Hole * Latitude: 41.534985 * Longitude: -70.641330 * Location: Woods Hole, USA * Method/Device: Sampling river (RIVER)
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethod/DeviceComment
1DATE/TIMEDate/TimeRuff, S EmilGeocode – of collection
2CommentCommentRuff, S Emilto date/time
3Sample IDSample IDRuff, S EmilTime Point
4Sample IDSample IDRuff, S EmilHole and Depth Layer
5DEPTH, waterDepth watermRuff, S EmilGeocode
6Water bodiesWater bodiesRuff, S EmilAppearance
7Present weatherwwRuff, S Emil
8Temperature, waterTemp°CRuff, S Emil
9pHpHRuff, S Emil
10OxygenO%Ruff, S EmilDissolved
11SalinitySalRuff, S Emil
12DensityDensityarbitrary unitsRuff, S EmilRefractometer
13Iron 2+Fe2+µmol/lRuff, S Emil
14Iron 3+Fe3+µmol/lRuff, S Emil
15IronFeµmol/lRuff, S Emil
16Sulfide, totalTS2-mmol/lRuff, S Emil
17FluorideF-mg/lRuff, S Emil
18FluorideF-µmol/lRuff, S Emil
19ChlorideCl-mg/lRuff, S Emil
20ChlorideCl-mmol/lRuff, S Emil
21Nitrite[NO2]-mg/lRuff, S Emil
22Nitrite[NO2]-mmol/lRuff, S Emil
23Sulfate[SO4]2-mg/lRuff, S Emil
24Sulfate[SO4]2-mmol/lRuff, S Emil
25BromideBr-mg/lRuff, S Emil
26BromideBr-mmol/lRuff, S Emil
27Nitrate[NO3]-mg/lRuff, S Emil
28NitrateNO3mmol/lRuff, S Emil
29Phosphate[PO4]3-mg/lRuff, S Emil
30PhosphatePO4mmol/lRuff, S Emil
31LithiumLiµmol/lRuff, S Emil
32SodiumNammol/lRuff, S Emil
33Ammonium[NH4]+mmol/lRuff, S Emil
34PotassiumKmmol/lRuff, S Emil
35MagnesiumMgmmol/lRuff, S Emil
36CalciumCammol/lRuff, S Emil
37LactateLactateµmol/lRuff, S Emil
38AcetateAcetateµmol/lRuff, S Emil
39FormateFormateµmol/lRuff, S Emil
40SuccinateSuccinateµmol/lRuff, S Emil
41BiomassBiomg/lRuff, S EmilNormalized
42FormateFormateµmol/lRuff, S EmilHigh Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
43AcetateAcetateµmol/lRuff, S EmilHigh Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
3766 data points

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