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Schmidt, Matthias; Windisch, Heidrun Sigrid; Ludwichowski, Kai-Uwe; Seegert, Sean Lando Levin; Pörtner, Hans-Otto; Storch, Daniela; Bock, Christian (2017): Seawater carbonate chemistry and neurochemical profiles of two gadid species. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Schmidt, M et al. (2017): Differences in neurochemical profiles of two gadid species under ocean warming and acidification. Frontiers in Zoology, 14(9),

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Background: Exposure to future ocean acidification scenarios may alter the behaviour of marine teleosts through interference with neuroreceptor functioning. So far, most studies investigated effects of ocean acidification on the behaviour of fish, either isolated or in combination with environmental temperature. However, only few physiological studies on this issue were conducted despite the putative neurophysiological origin of the CO2-induced behavioural changes. Here, we present the metabolic consequences of long-term exposure to projected ocean acidification (396–548 μatm PCO2 under control and 915–1272 μatm under treatment conditions) and parallel warming in the brain of two related fish species, polar cod (Boreogadus saida, exposed to 0 °C, 3 °C, 6 °C and 8 °C) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, exposed to 3 °C, 8 °C, 12 °C and 16 °C). It has been shown that B. saida is behaviourally vulnerable to future ocean acidification scenarios, while G. morhua demonstrates behavioural resilience.
Results: We found that temperature alters brain osmolyte, amino acid, choline and neurotransmitter concentrations in both species indicating thermal responses particularly in osmoregulation and membrane structure. In B. saida, changes in amino acid and osmolyte metabolism at the highest temperature tested were also affected by CO2, possibly emphasizing energetic limitations. We did not observe changes in neurotransmitters, energy metabolites, membrane components or osmolytes that might serve as a compensatory mechanism against CO2 induced behavioural impairments. In contrast to B. saida, such temperature limitation was not detected in G. morhua; however, at 8 °C, CO2 induced an increase in the levels of metabolites of the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle potentially indicating greater GABAergic activity in G.morhua. Further, increased availability of energy-rich substrates was detected under these conditions.
Conclusions: Our results indicate a change of GABAergic metabolism in the nervous system of Gadus morhua close to the optimum of the temperature range. Since a former study showed that juvenile G. morhua might be slightly more behaviourally resilient to CO2 at this respective temperature, we conclude that the observed change of GABAergic metabolism could be involved in counteracting OA induced behavioural changes. This may serve as a fitness advantage of this respective species compared to B. saida in a future warmer, more acidified polar ocean.
Animalia; Boreogadus saida; Chordata; Coast and continental shelf; Containers and aquaria (20-1000 L or < 1 m**2); Gadus morhua; Laboratory experiment; Nekton; Not applicable; Other studied parameter or process; Pelagos; Polar; Single species; Temperature
Further details:
Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Epitalon, Jean-Marie; Lavigne, Héloise; Orr, James C; Gentili, Bernard; Proye, Aurélien; Soetaert, Karline; Rae, James (2016): seacarb: seawater carbonate chemistry with R. R package version 3.1.
Median Latitude: 79.135000 * Median Longitude: 15.540000 * South-bound Latitude: 78.970000 * West-bound Longitude: 12.510000 * North-bound Latitude: 79.300000 * East-bound Longitude: 18.570000
Date/Time Start: 2013-01-17T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2013-08-26T00:00:00
Kongsfjord_OA * Latitude: 78.970000 * Longitude: 12.510000 * Date/Time: 2013-01-17T00:00:00 * Method/Device: Experiment (EXP)
RV_Heincke * Latitude: 79.300000 * Longitude: 18.570000 * Date/Time Start: 2013-08-23T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2013-08-26T00:00:00 * Method/Device: Experiment (EXP)
In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Gattuso et al, 2016) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI). The date of carbonate chemistry calculation by seacarb is 2018-07-02.
1H-NMR rawdata. The value of each compound was divided by total creatine (creatine+phosphocreatine) for standardization. Ace = Acetate; AcHis = Acetyl histidine; Ala = Alanine; Cho = Choline; GABA = Gamma-aminobutyric acid; Glu = Glutamate; Gln = Glutamine; Gpcho = Glycerophosphocholine; Gly = Glycine; Lac = Lactate; MI = Myo-inositol; NAA = N-acetylaspartate; Pcho = Phosphocholine; Put = Putrescine; Suc = Succinate; Tau = Taurine
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethod/DeviceComment
1Event labelEventBock, Christian
2TypeTypeBock, Christianstudy
3SpeciesSpeciesBock, Christian
4Registration number of speciesReg spec noBock, Christian
5Uniform resource locator/link to referenceURL refBock, ChristianWoRMS Aphia ID
6Experiment durationExp durationdaysBock, Christian
7Temperature, waterTemp°CBock, Christiantreatment
8TreatmentTreatBock, Christian
9Sample IDSample IDBock, Christian
10ConcentrationConcrelative unitsBock, ChristianGABA
11ConcentrationConcrelative unitsBock, ChristianAce
12ConcentrationConcrelative unitsBock, ChristianAcHis
13ConcentrationConcrelative unitsBock, ChristianAla
14ConcentrationConcrelative unitsBock, ChristianCho
15ConcentrationConcrelative unitsBock, ChristianGlu
16ConcentrationConcrelative unitsBock, ChristianGln
17ConcentrationConcrelative unitsBock, ChristianGly
18ConcentrationConcrelative unitsBock, ChristianLac
19ConcentrationConcrelative unitsBock, ChristianNAA
20ConcentrationConcrelative unitsBock, ChristianPcho
21ConcentrationConcrelative unitsBock, ChristianPut
22ConcentrationConcrelative unitsBock, ChristianSuc
23ConcentrationConcrelative unitsBock, ChristianTau
24ConcentrationConcrelative unitsBock, ChristianTMAO
25ConcentrationConcrelative unitsBock, ChristianMi
26ConcentrationConcrelative unitsBock, ChristianGlpcho
27SerotoninSerotoninng/gBock, Christianper brain tissue
285-hydroxyindoleacetic acidHIAAng/gBock, Christianper brain tissue
29RatioRatioBock, ChristianHIAA/Serotonin
30SalinitySalBock, Christian
31Salinity, standard deviationSal std dev±Bock, Christian
32Alkalinity, totalATµmol/kgBock, Christian
33Alkalinity, total, standard deviationAT std dev±Bock, Christian
34Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICmg/lBock, Christian
35Carbon, inorganic, dissolved, standard deviationDIC std dev±Bock, Christian
36pHpHBock, Christiantotal scale
37pH, standard deviationpH std dev±Bock, Christiantotal scale
38Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmBock, Christian
39Partial pressure of carbon dioxide, standard deviationpCO2 std dev±Bock, Christian
40Bicarbonate ion[HCO3]-µmol/kgBock, Christian
41Bicarbonate ion, standard deviation[HCO3]- std dev±Bock, Christian
42Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgBock, Christian
43Carbonate ion, standard deviation[CO3]2- std dev±Bock, Christian
44Calcite saturation stateOmega CalBock, Christian
45Calcite saturation state, standard deviationOmega Cal std dev±Bock, Christian
46Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgBock, Christian
47Aragonite saturation state, standard deviationOmega Arg std dev±Bock, Christian
48Temperature, waterTemp°CBock, Christian
49Temperature, water, standard deviationTemp std dev±Bock, Christian
50Carbonate system computation flagCSC flagYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
51Carbon dioxideCO2µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
52Fugacity of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)fCO2water_SST_wetµatmYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
53Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
54Bicarbonate ion[HCO3]-µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
55Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
56Alkalinity, totalATµmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
57Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
58Calcite saturation stateOmega CalYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
7253 data points

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