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Gray, William R; Weldeab, Syee; Lea, David W; Rosenthal, Yair; Gruber, Nicolas; Donner, Barbara; Fischer, Gerhard (2018): A global sediment trap database of Mg/Ca in planktic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Gray, WR et al. (2018): The effects of temperature, salinity, and the carbonate system on Mg/Ca in Globigerinoides ruber (white): A global sediment trap calibration. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 482, 607-620,

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The Mg/Ca of planktic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber (white) is a widely applied proxy for tropical and sub-tropical sea-surface temperature. The accuracy with which temperature can be reconstructed depends on how accurately relationships between Mg/Ca and temperature and the multiple secondary controls on Mg/Ca are known; however, these relationships remain poorly quantified under oceanic conditions. Here, we present new calibrations based on 440 sediment trap/plankton tow samples from the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, including 130 new samples from the Bay of Bengal/Arabian Sea and the tropical Atlantic Ocean. Our results indicate temperature, salinity and the carbonate system all significantly influence Mg/Ca in G. ruber (white). We propose two calibration models: The first model assumes pH is the controlling carbonate system parameter. In this model, Mg/Ca has a temperature sensitivity of 6.0 ± 0.8 %/°C (2 Sigma), a salinity sensitivity of 3.3 ± 2.2%/PSU and a pH sensitivity of -8.3 ± 7.7%/0.1 pH units; The second model assumes carbonate ion concentration ([CO3**2-]) is the controlling carbonate system parameter. In this model, Mg/Ca has a temperature sensitivity of 6.7 ± 0.8%/°C, a salinity sensitivity of 5.0 ± 3.0%/PSU and a [CO3**2-] sensitivity of -0.24 ± 0.11/µmol kg**1. In both models, the temperature sensitivity is significantly lower than the widely-applied sensitivity of 9.0 ± 0.6%/°C. Application of our new calibrations to down-core data from the Last Glacial Maximum, considering whole ocean changes in salinity and carbonate chemistry, indicate a cooling of 2.4 ± 1.6 °C in the tropical oceans if pH is the controlling parameter and 1.5 ± 1.4 °C if [CO3**2-] is the controlling parameter.
Related to:
Anand, Pallavi; Elderfield, Henry; Conte, Maureen H (2003): Calibration of Mg/Ca thermometry in planktonic foraminifera from a sediment trap time series. Paleoceanography, 18(2), 1050,
Babila, Tali L; Rosenthal, Yair; Conte, Maureen H (2014): Evaluation of the biogeochemical controls on B/Ca of Globigerinoides ruber white from the Oceanic Flux Program, Bermuda. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 404, 67-76,
Fallet, Ulrike; Brummer, Geert-Jan A; Zinke, Jens; Vogels, Sanne; Ridderinkhof, Herman (2010): Contrasting seasonal fluxes of planktonic foraminifera and impacts on paleothermometry in the Mozambique Channel upstream of the Agulhas Current. Paleoceanography, 25(4),
Fischer, Gerhard; Romero, Oscar E; Merkel, Ute; Donner, Barbara; Iversen, Morten Hvitfeldt; Nowald, Nicolas; Ratmeyer, Volker; Ruhland, Götz; Klann, Marco; Wefer, Gerold (2016): Deep ocean mass fluxes in the coastal upwelling off Mauritania from 1988 to 2012: variability on seasonal to decadal timescales. Biogeosciences, 13(10), 3071-3090,
Friedrich, Oliver; Schiebel, Ralf; Wilson, Paul A; Weldeab, Syee; Beer, Christopher J; Cooper, Matthew J; Fiebig, Jens (2012): Influence of test size, water depth, and ecology on Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, ?18O and ?13C in nine modern species of planktic foraminifers. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 319-320, 133-145,
Haarmann, Tim; Hathorne, Ed C; Mohtadi, Mahyar; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Kölling, Martin; Bickert, Torsten (2011): Mg/Ca ratios of single planktonic foraminifer shells and the potential to reconstruct the thermal seasonality of the water column. Paleoceanography, 26, PA3218,
Huang, Kuo-Fang; You, Cheng-Feng; Lin, Hui-Ling; Ying-Tzeng, Shieh (2008): In situ calibration of Mg/Ca ratio in planktonic foraminiferal shell using time series sediment trap: A case study of intense dissolution artifact in the South China Sea. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 9(4),
Mathien-Blard, Elise; Bassinot, Franck C (2009): Salinity bias on the foraminifera Mg/Ca thermometry: Correction procedure and implications for past ocean hydrographic reconstructions. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 10(12),
McConnell, Martha C; Thunell, Robert C (2005): Calibration of the planktonic foraminiferal Mg/Ca paleothermometer: Sediment trap results from the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. Paleoceanography, 20(2),
Mohtadi, Mahyar; Steinke, Stephan; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Fink, Hiske G; Rixen, Tim; Hebbeln, Dierk; Donner, Barbara; Herunadi, Bambang (2009): Low-latitude control on seasonal and interannual changes in planktonic foraminiferal flux and shell geochemistry off south Java: A sediment trap study. Paleoceanography, 24, PA1201,
Further details:
Anand, Pallavi; Elderfield, Henry; Conte, Maureen H (2003): Mg/Ca and d18O measurements of planktonic foraminifera from Sargasso Sea. PANGAEA,
Haarmann, Tim; Hathorne, Ed C; Mohtadi, Mahyar; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Kölling, Martin; Bickert, Torsten (2011): Single planktonic foraminiferal Mg/Ca ratios of samples from sediment trap CBi3 upper off Cape Blanc (NW-Africa). PANGAEA,
Mohtadi, Mahyar (2010): Planktonic foraminiferal flux and shell geochemistry data in the sediment trap time series JAM 1-3 off south Java. PANGAEA,
Median Latitude: 14.332946 * Median Longitude: 61.695345 * South-bound Latitude: -16.200000 * West-bound Longitude: -111.670000 * North-bound Latitude: 36.120000 * East-bound Longitude: 141.890000
Date/Time Start: 1995-03-14T18:22:00 * Date/Time End: 2006-09-28T00:00:00
Minimum Elevation: -4070.0 m * Maximum Elevation: 0.0 m
CBi3 * Latitude: 20.760000 * Longitude: -18.765000 * Date/Time Start: 2005-07-25T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2006-09-28T00:00:00 * Elevation: -2693.0 m * Location: Cape Blanc * Campaign: POS344/1 * Basis: Poseidon * Device: Trap (TRAP)
CB_trap * Latitude: 21.633000 * Longitude: -20.183300 * Location: off Cap Blanc * Device: Trap (TRAP)
GOC_trap * Latitude: 27.880000 * Longitude: -111.670000 * Elevation: -485.0 m * Location: Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California * Device: Trap, sediment (TRAPS)
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1Event labelEventGray, William R
2Latitude of eventLatitudeGray, William R
3Longitude of eventLongitudeGray, William R
4Reference/sourceReferenceGray, William Rtrap ref
5LocationLocationGray, William R
6Sample IDSample IDGray, William R
7Day of studyDOSdayGray, William Ropen
8Day of studyDOSdayGray, William Rclose
9Globigerinoides ruber white, Magnesium/Calcium ratioG. ruber w Mg/Cammol/molGray, William R
10MorphotypeMorphotypeGray, William R
11Size fractionFractionGray, William Rsize min
12Size fractionFractionGray, William Rsize max
13Temperature, waterTemp°CGray, William R
14SigmaSigmaGray, William Rof T
15SalinitySalGray, William R
16SigmaSigmaGray, William Rof S
17pHpHGray, William R
18SigmaSigmaGray, William Rof pH
19Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgGray, William R
20SigmaSigmaGray, William Rof CO3
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