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Ford, Heather L; McChesney, C Lorriane; Hertzberg, Jennifer E; McManus, Jerry F (2018): Oxygen Stable Isotope Values from the Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Ford, HL et al. (2018): A Deep Eastern Equatorial Pacific Thermocline During the Last Glacial Maximum. Geophysical Research Letters,

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The mean state and variability of the tropical Pacific is influenced by the depth of the thermocline. During the Last Glacial Maximum (~21,000 years ago), the zonal sea surface temperature gradient across the equatorial Pacific was reduced and productivity was lower than modern. To understand the thermocline depth's role in determining the Last Glacial Maximum tropical mean state, here we reconstruct the upper ocean d18O profile from multiple species of planktic foraminifera. We synthesize existing records of surface and subsurface dwelling foraminifera to reconstruct the vertical d18O gradient throughout the eastern equatorial Pacific. We find the thermocline was deeper during the Last Glacial Maximum than the Holocene throughout the eastern equatorial region. The thermocline depth's role in the dynamic forcing of the cold tongue contributed to the reduced zonal SST gradient across the equatorial Pacific, decreased productivity and reduced El Niño-Southern Oscillation variability relative to the Holocene.
Related to:
Benway, Heather M; Mix, Alan C; Haley, Brian A; Klinkhammer, Gary P (2006): Eastern Pacific Warm Pool paleosalinity and climate variability: 0-30 kyr. Paleoceanography, 21(3), PA3008,
Faul, Kristina L; Ravelo, Ana Christina; Delaney, Margaret Lois (2000): Reconstructions of upwelling, productivity, and photic zone depth in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean using planktonic foraminiferal stable isotopes and abundances. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 30(2), 110-125,
Koutavas, Athanasios; Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean (2003): Glacial-interglacial dynamics of the eastern equatorial Pacific cold tongue-Intertropical Convergence Zone system reconstructed from oxygen isotope records. Paleoceanography, 18(4), 1089,
Lea, David W; Pak, Dorothy K; Spero, Howard J (2000): Climate Impact of Late Quaternary Equatorial Pacific Sea Surface Temperature Variations. Science, 289(5485), 1719-1724,
Leduc, Guillaume; Vidal, Laurence; Tachikawa, Kazuyo; Bard, Édouard (2009): ITCZ rather than ENSO signature for abrupt climate changes across the tropical Pacific? Quaternary Research, 72(01), 123-131,
Lyle, Mitchell W; Mix, Alan C; Pisias, Nicklas G (2002): Patterns of CaCO3 deposition in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean for the last 150 kyr: Evidence for a southeast Pacific depositional spike during marine isotope stage (MIS) 2. Paleoceanography, 17(2), 3-1-3-13,
Martinez, Ignacio; Keigwin, Lloyd D; Barrows, Timothy T; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Southon, John (2003): La Niña-like conditions in the eastern equatorial Pacific and a stronger Choco jet in the northern Andes during the last glaciation. Paleoceanography, 18(2), 1033,
Patrick, Andrew; Thunell, Robert C (1997): Tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures and upper water column thermal structure during the Last Glacial Maximum. Paleoceanography, 12(5), 649-657,
Sadekov, Aleksey; Ganeshram, Raja S; Pichevin, Laetitia E; Berdin, Rose; McClymont, Erin L; Elderfield, Henry; Tudhope, Alexander W (2013): Palaeoclimate reconstructions reveal a strong link between El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Tropical Pacific mean state. Nature Communications, 4,
Spero, Howard J; Lea, David W (2002): The Cause of Carbon Isotope Minimum Events on Glacial Terminations. Science, 296(5567), 522-525,
Spero, Howard J; Mielke, Koreen M; Kalve, Erica M; Lea, David W; Pak, Dorothy K (2003): Multispecies approach to reconstructing eastern equatorial Pacific thermocline hydrography during the past 360 kyr. Paleoceanography, 18(1), 1022,
Median Latitude: 0.330144 * Median Longitude: -93.198637 * South-bound Latitude: -5.517000 * West-bound Longitude: -110.519710 * North-bound Latitude: 8.205500 * East-bound Longitude: -81.583000
Date/Time Start: 1963-04-05T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2002-06-23T05:05:00
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