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Lun, Fei; Liu, Junguo; Ciais, Philippe; Nesme, Thomas; Chang, Jinfeng; Wang, Rong; Goll, Daniel S; Sardans, Jordi; Penuelas, Josep; Obersteiner, Michael (2017): Global and regional phosphorus budgets in agricultural systems and their implications for phosphorus-use efficiency. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.875296, Supplement to: Lun, F et al. (2017): Global and regional phosphorus budgets in agricultural systems and their implications for phosphorus-use efficiency. Earth System Science Data Discussions, 1-45, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-41

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Abstract:
The application of phosphorus (P) fertilizer to agricultural soils increased by 3.2 % annually from 2002 to 2010. We quantified in detail the P inputs and outputs of cropland and pasture, and the P fluxes through human and livestock consumers of agricultural products, at global, regional, and national scales from 2002 to 2010. Globally, half of the total P input (21.3 Tg P yr-1) into agricultural systems accumulated in agricultural soils during this period, with the rest lost to bodies of water through complex flows. Global P accumulation in agricultural soil increased from 2002 to 2010, despite decreases in 2008 and 2009, and the P accumulation occurred primarily in cropland. Despite the global increase of soil P, 32 % of the world's cropland and 43 % of the pasture had soil P deficits. Increasing soil P deficits were found for African cropland, versus increasing P accumulation in Eastern Asia. European and North American pasture had a soil P deficit because continuous removal of biomass P by grazing exceeded P inputs. International trade played a significant role in P redistribution among countries through the flows of P in fertilizer and food among countries. Based on country-scale budgets and trends we propose policy options to potentially mitigate regional P imbalances in agricultural soils, particularly by optimizing the use of phosphate fertilizer and recycling of waste P. The trend of increasing consumption of livestock products will require more P inputs to the agricultural system, implying a low P-use efficiency aggravating the P stocks scarcity in the future. The global and regional phosphorus budgets and their PUEs in agricultural systems is publicly available at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.875296.
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